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I 29.88/2-2:L 63 

Historic Furnishings Report. 




Clemson University 



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3 1604 003 939 339 > U8L 1C DOCUMENTS 

DEPOSITORY ff£m 

NOV 27 W 

CLEMSON 
LI B RARY 




Historic Furnishings Report 



LINCOLN HOME 

National Historic Site / Illinois 



Approved: Regional Director, Midwest Region November 1, 1983 



HISTORIC FURNISHINGS REPORT 
Sections A through E 



THE LINCOLN HOME 

Lincoln Home National Historic Site 
Springfield, Illinois 



by 
Katherine B. Menz 



1983 

Harpers Ferry Center 

National Park Service 

U. S. Department of the Interior 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/historicfurnishiOOmenz 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Many people assisted with the research and preparation of this 
report. 

I wish to specially thank the Lincoln Home staff, in particular 
Superintendent Albert Banton, Historian George Painter, Interpre- 
tive Specialist Robert F. Holmes, and Museum Aid Paul Sullivan 
for their guidance and assistance on site. 

This study followed the National Park Service report, The His - 
toric Structure R eport: Lincoln Home National Historic Site (Den- 
ver Service Center, July 1973), prepared by Edwin C. Bearss. The 
furnishings information found in that report has been incor- 
porated into this furnishing study. Particular thanks are also 
due to Edwin C. Bearss for sharing his extensive knowledge of 
Lincoln historical material and his suggestions for possible 
sources of information. 

Another person whose research has been relied upon in this report 
is the late Richard Hagen, who served as Historical Consultant to 
the State of Illinois during the 1954-1955 restoration and refur- 
nishing of the Lincoln Home. Mr. Hagen 's work in tracking down 
original Lincoln artifacts has been incorporated into this study. 



in 



I wish to specially acknowledge James Hickey, Curator of the Lin- 
coln Collection, Illinois State Historical Library. Hickey lo- 
cated and made available to me the Lincoln Home Files and answer- 
ed innumerable questions. His extensive knowledge of Lincoln 
artifacts and Lincoln collectors was an important source of in- 
formation for this report. 

Many thanks are due to Nancy Konstantinidi s, who typed several 
drafts of this study, and to Vi Earnst, a Volunteer in the Park, 
whose furnishing research projects, work on the kitchen and 
dining room plans, and assistance with the final draft were in- 
valuable. 

The section entitled, "Special Installation, Maintenance and Pro- 
tection Recommendations," was prepared by Diana Pardue of the 
Curatorial Services Unit at Harpers Ferry. 



TV 



TA BLE OF CONTENTS 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS i i i 

TABLE OF CONTENTS v 

L IST OF ILLUSTRATIONS x 

ADMINISTRATIVE DATA xi 

NAME, NUMBER, AND CLASSIFICATION OF STRUCTURE xi 

LOCATION AND PROPOSED USE OF STRUCTURE xi 

PLANNING AND OTHER DOCUMENTS RELATING TO FURNISHING THE STRUCTURE. . xi 

SECTION A: DEFINITION OF INTERPRETIVE OBJECTIVES 1 

SECTION B: OPERATING PLAN 3 

HISTORICAL DATA 5 

SECTION C: ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL OCCUPANCY 5 

FOOTNOTES TO SECTION C 26 

SECTION D: EVIDENCE OF ORIGINAL FURNISHINGS 33 

INTRODUCTION 33 

CONTEMPORARY ACCOUNTS 33 

THE LINCOLNS' 1861 SALE OF HOUSEHOLD FURNISHINGS 45 

PICTORIAL EVIDENCE OF FIRST FLOOR FURNISHINGS 46 

RECORDED FURNISHINGS - FIRST FLOOR 48 



LINCOLN HOME FURNISHINGS WITH STRONG DOCUMENTATION 48 

BOOKS: 48 

CHAIRS: 53 

CLOC KS : 60 

HALL STAND: 62 

LIGHTING DEVICES: 63 

MIRRORS: 65 

SECRETARY-DESKS : 66 

SEWING BASKETS: 67 

SOFAS: 68 

TABLES : 72 

ARCHEOLOGICAL EVI DENCE : 77 

FURNISHINGS ASSOCIATED WITH LINCOLN BUT NOT WELL 

DOCUMENTED 79 

CHAIRS: 79 

FOOTSTOOLS : 86 

LAMPS : 87 

MIRRORS : 87 

MUSIC BOXES: 88 

PEDESTAL STANDS : 89 

SECRETARIES AND DESKS: 90 

SOFAS : 92 

STEREOSCOPE : 93 

TABLES : 94 

WHATNOTS : 96 

ACCESSORY FURNISHINGS 98 

SPRINGFIELD STORE ACCOUNTS: 98 

BASKET OF APPLES : 100 

VOLK BUST OF LINCOLN: 100 

DINNERWARE, ETC. : 101 

LINCOLN FAMILY ARTIFACTS IN OTHER COLLECTIONS 104 

RECORDED KITCHEN FURNISHINGS 109 

STOVE: 109 

CUPBOARD: 110 

KITCHEN PURCHASES: 112 

RECORDED FURNISHINGS - SECOND FLOOR 119 

PICTORIAL: 119 

BEDS: 120 

COMMODES AND DAYBEDS : 125 

BLANKET CHESTS : 127 



VI 



BUREAUS : 128 

CHILDREN'S FURNITURE: 133 

DESKS: 136 

MIRRORS: 136 

WARDROBES: 137 

WASHSTAND, TOILET SET, QUILT, PICTURE, ETC. AND 

MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS: 138 

VANITY: 141 

DRUGS AND TOILETRIES: 142 

FABRIC PURCHASES 144 

FLOOR COVERINGS 145 

WALLPAPER 147 

FOOTNOTES TO SECTION D 150 

THE PLAN 161 

SECTION E: RECOMMENDED FURNISHINGS 161 

PARLORS: INTRODUCTION 164 

FRONT PARLOR: ROOM A 165 

REAR PARLOR: ROOM B 181 

SITTING ROOM: INTRODUCTION 186 

SITTING ROOM: ROOM C 187 

DINING ROOM: INTRODUCTION 195 

DINING ROOM: ROOM D 197 

KITCHEN-PORCH-STOREROOM: INTRODUCTION 207 

KITCHEN-PORCH-STOREROOM: ROOMS E 208 

FIRST FLOOR HALL: ROOM F 230 

WINDOW HANGINGS: FIRST FLOOR: ROOMS A-D 233 



VII 



FLOOR COVERINGS AND WALLPAPER: FIRST FLOOR: 

ROOMS A-D, F 234 

BEDROOMS: INTRODUCTION 240 

MR. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM G 243 

GUEST ROOM: ROOM H 257 

MRS. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM 1 265 

BOYS' ROOM: ROOM J 277 

MAID'S ROOM: INTRODUCTION 284 

MAID'S ROOM: ROOM K 285 

HALLWAY: SECOND FLOOR: ROOM L 292 

WINDOW HANGINGS: SECOND FLOOR: ROOMS G-L 295 

FLOOR COVERINGS AND WALLPAPER: SECOND FLOOR: 

ROOMS G-L 296 

FOOTNOTES TO SECTION E 300 

SUMMARY OF FURNISHINGS AND COST ESTIMATES 305 

(Window hangings, floor coverings, and wallpaper are 
listed under their respective rooms.) 

FRONT PARLOR: ROOM A 305 

REAR PARLOR : ROOM B 309 

SITTING ROOM: ROOM C 311 

DINING ROOM: ROOM D 314 

KITCHEN-PORCH-STOREROOM: ROOMS E 317 

FIRST FLOOR HALL: ROOM F 320 

MR. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM G 321 

GUEST ROOM: ROOM H 325 

MRS. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM 1 328 

BOYS ' ROOM : ROOM J 331 

MAID'S ROOM: ROOM K 334 

SECOND FLOOR HALL: ROOM L 335 

FLOOR PLANS 337 



VT 1 1 



SPECIAL INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE AND PROTECTION 
RECOMMENDATIONS 351 



LIST OF APPENDICES 377 



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 411 



ILLUSTRATIONS 423 



1 x 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Plates F ollowing Page 423 



Front Parlor from Frank Leslie ' s Illustrated Newspaper , 
March 9, 1861. 

II Back Parlor from Fran k Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , 

March 9, 1861. 

Ill The Sitting Room from Frank Leslie's Illustrated 

Newspaper , March 9, 1861. 

IV Parlors draped for Lincoln's Funeral, ca. 1865, 

attributed to Alfred Waud, Waud Collection, 
LC-USZ62-68106, Division of Prints and Photo- 
graphs, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 

V Unidentified room, possibly South Front Bedroom, 

ca . 1865, attributed to Alfred Waud, Waud Collec- 
tion, LC-USZ62-68105, Division of Prints and 
Photographs, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 

VI Unidentified room, possibly Lincoln's Bedroom, 

ca. 1865, attributed to Alfred Waud, Waud Collec- 
tion, LC-USZ62-68104, Division of Prints and 
Photographs, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 

VII Globe Tavern, ca. 1865, attributed to Alfred Waud, 

Waud Collection, LC-USZ62-68107, Division of 
Prints and Photographs, Library of Congress, 
Washington, D. C. 

VIII Sofa, Accession No. 1920.246, Chicago Historical 

Society, Chicago, Illinois. 

IX Mirror, Accession No. 1960.100, Chicago Historical 

Society, Chicago, Illinois. 



ADMINISTRATIVE DATA 

NAME, NUMBER, AND CLASSIFICATION OF STRUCTURE 
The Lincoln Home, Building No. 1, First Order of Significance, 



LOCATION AND PROPOSED USE OF STRUCTURE 
The Lincoln Home is located on Eighth Street, Springfield, Illi- 
nois. It is furnished and interpreted to "appear precisely as it 
did on the day Lincoln left to take up duties of the presidency 
in Washington" (Interpretive Prospectus, 1976, p. 10). 



PLANNING AND OTHER DOCUMENTS RELATING TO FURNISHING THE STRUCTURE 
Bearss, Edwin C. Historic Structures Report: Lincoln Home National 

Historic Site . Denver, Colorado: Denver Service Center, 

National Park Service, 1973. 
Ryan, James. Final Interpretive Prospectus: Lincoln Home National 

Historic Site . Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Harpers Ferry 

Center, National Park Service, 1976. 



X ] 



SECTION A: DEFINITION OF INTERPRETIVE OBJECTIVES 

The fundamental interpretive objective of the Lincoln Home Na- 
tional Historic Site is to illuminate the life and character of 
Abraham Lincoln during the seventeen years that he lived in the 
Home, rather than to represent the everyday life of the period or 
to recapture the setting of a single event. More specifically, 
the Interpretive Prospectus (October 1976) for the Lincoln Home 
National Historic Site identifies four Interpretive Objectives 
for the area: 

1. To interpret the developing career of Abraham Lincoln 
and the events associated with that career while he lived in 
this house and in the Springfield community. 

2. To interpret events in the life of Abraham Lincoln in 
this house where he lived primarily as a father, husband, 
citizen, and neighbor. 

3. To present the Lincoln Home, the contemporary neighbor- 
hood around it, and the related historical remains in the 
Springfield community in such a way as to enable visitors to 
understand the environment of which Mr. Lincoln was a part 
for the 17 years that took him from the beginnings of a law 
practice here to the presidency. 



4. To interpret Lincoln's social and political ideas, many 
of which were formed while he lived in this house in Spring- 
field, and which were implemented as national policy during 
his presidency and left to us -- a complex legacy of both 
national and individual ideals to which we still aspire and 
toward the fulfillment of which we continue to work. 

The furnishing arrangements of the Lincoln Home will play an 
important role in contributing to the achievement of these Inter- 
pretive Objectives. The furnishings of the Home will illustrate 
the developing career of Abraham Lincoln in Springfield (Objec- 
tive 1), the life of the Lincoln family in the Home (Objective 
2), and the manner in which Lincoln's environment reflected and 
influenced his social and political life (Objectives 3 & 4). 
Therefore, it is important that the interpretive role of the 
furnishings be taken into consideration throughout this document. 

The Home will be furnished to its appearance in 1860 as fully and 
accurately as available furnishings and documentation permit. 



SECTION B: OPERATING PLAN 

The Lincoln Home is open year round for public visitation from 
8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., with extended hours provided in the 
summer. There are a minimum of two interpreters stationed in the 
Home during the hours that it is open to the public, with one 
interpreter stationed on the first floor and the other on the 
second floor. These staff members provide security for the 
artifacts and building, as well as interpreting the Home to the 
visitors. A Museum Aid cleans the Home and artifacts, thereby 
increasing the longevity of these historical materials. Lexan 
barriers topped with a wooden railing restrict visitor movement 
throughout the Home and permit limited visitor access to the 
rooms. 

Photoelectric alarm units activate an alarm bell should visitors 
reach or step over the railings. Ultrasonic detectors are also 
operational during hours that the Home is closed and are connect- 
ed to the Springfield Police Department. Ionization (smoke) de- 
tectors and fixed temperature (heat) detectors activate a fire 
detection system that is connected to the Springfield Fire De- 
partment on a twenty-four hour a day basis. 

Visitors to the Lincoln Home will enter the structure through the 
front door on the west side of the building. The interpreter on 



the first floor will then direct the visitors from the front 
hallway of the Home into the formal parlor. The visitors will 
move along the south side of the formal parlor and rear parlor 
into the dining room. Visitors will then proceed along the west 
side of the dining room and move through a doorway into the 
sitting room. After viewing the sitting room from the north side 
of the room, visitors will move back into the front hallway. 

Visitors will then ascend the stairs to the upper hallway, from 
which they can view the front guest bedroom through the door of 
the room. From the upper hallway, they will move into Lincoln's 
bedroom. Visitors will then progress through Mrs. Lincoln's room. 
From there, they will proceed into the second floor rear hallway. 

While proceeding through the upper rear hallway, visitors have 
the opportunity to look into the Boys' room and the sewing or 
maid's room. Viewing would be from the doorways of these rooms. 
They then descend the rear stairway on the east side of the 
building and view the kitchen from the south side of the room. 
After viewing the kitchen, visitors will exit from the rear door 
of the Home, near the southeast corner of the structure, where 
they may view the storage room on the back porch. 

The Trunk Room will not be furnished but will continue to serve 
staff and site management needs. 



HISTORICAL DATA 

SECTION C: ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL OCCUPANCY 

The Lincoln house on 8th and Jackson Streets in Springfield was 
the only one Abraham Lincoln ever owned. Following their mar- 
riage on November 4, 1842, the Lincolns began housekeeping in 
rooms at the Globe Tavern. Other young couples in Springfield 
also had begun married life at the Globe, including two of Mary 
Todd's relatives, the John Todd Stuarts and the William Wallaces. 
In fact, the Lincolns moved into the same rooms which the Wal- 
laces had occupied for three years. 

The Lincoln's first child, Robert Todd, was born at the Globe, 
August 1, 1843. Soon after the birth of their child the Lincolns 
moved. They spent the winter of 1843-1844 in a rented three-room 
cottage at 214 South Fourth Street while they looked for a house 
to buy. In January 1844, Lincoln began the transactions to buy 
the Reverend Henry Dresser's (the same Reverend Dresser who had 
performed the Lincoln's marriage ceremony) 8th Street home. In 
May of that year, the Lincolns completed negotiations, paying 
Dresser a total of $1,200 for the 8th Street house and one down- 
town lot and building valued at $300. 

Between 1842 and 1861, Lincoln rose in stature from a local 
lawyer to a national political figure. During this period, his 



income also increased significantly. At the time the Lincolns 
purchased the 8th Street house, Lincoln's income from his law 
practice has been estimated as better than average for a Spring- 
field resident. According to Harry E. Pratt, in his work on the 
personal finances of Lincoln between 1840 and 1850, Lincoln 
earned about $1,500 to $2,000 a year. His income increased dur- 
ing the 1850s and in at least one year he earned more than 

3 
$5,000. A more recent study of Lincoln's legal career, by John 

Paul Frank, maintains that Lincoln may have earned even more dur- 
ing this time. Frank bases this belief on the large number of 

cases Lincoln handled—many of which he believes should have 

4 
earned Lincoln substantial fees. By the 1850s, Lincoln was 

earning enough money from his law practice to supplement his in- 
come by loaning out small- to medium-sized sums to his friends 

5 
and neighbors at 10 percent interest. 

Nonetheless when Lincoln purchased the 8th Street house, it must 
have represented a substantial initial investment for the recent- 
ly married couple. The house was then a small story-and-a-hal f 
cottage. In 1856, the Lincolns decided to enlarge it. There are 
several possible explanations for the Lincolns' decision to make 
changes in their house at this time. They had three growing boys 
whose well-known mischievousness probably made the house seem 
small indeed. Bob was 12, Willie, 5 (born December 21, 1850), 



and Tad, 3 (born April 4, 1853) at the time of the enlargement. 
Their other son Edward, born February 1, 1846, died ten months 
before Willie was born on December 21, 1850. The larger house 
also would help to increase Lincoln's social standing in the 

community and allow Mary to entertain their friends on a grander 

, 7 
scale. 

The Lincolns made improvements on their house, although exactly 
what was done at this time is somewhat conjectural. The house 
was enlarged; four bedrooms at the rear of the house may have 
been added; and alterations may have been made to the two rooms 
on the north side of the first floor to create a double parlor, 
which could be separated into front and back parlors by closing 

o 

folding doors. 

Before the renovations, the use of the second floor was probably 
reserved for bedrooms for the Lincoln family, with Mary and Abra- 
ham in one room and the boys in the other. One anecdote told in 
1903 by Gibson Harris, Lincoln's law clerk during the years 1845 
to 1847, suggests this arrangement: 

Mr. Lincoln sometimes told at the office 
the sayings or doings of his children. One 
such account I remember as well as if I had 
heard it last week. He came in, an hour or so 
after dinner, smiling beyond even his wont and 
said he was lying down at home, having left 
his boots in the second-story hallway, when 
all at once he heard a tremendous clatter on 
the stairs. He jumped up, hurried to the head 



of the stairs, and looking down, saw Bob 
(Robert Todd Lincoln, aged three) getting up 
on all fours from the floor of the hallway 
below, unhurt but sadly bewildered. "The 
youngster had got into my boots," he said, 
"and in trying to walk around in them had 
fallen down-stairs. You ought to have seen 
him, Gibson — he looked so comical with the g 
bootlegs reaching clear up to his little body." 



On at least two occasions before 1856 relatives of the Lincolns 

made lengthy visits. Harriet Chapman, a cousin of Mr. Lincoln, 

was one of those who stayed for an extended visit; she arrived 

soon after they had moved into the 8th Street house and remained 

10 



a year and a hal f . 



Another visitor to the Lincoln household was Em i 1 i e Todd, Mary's 
younger half-sister. Emilie spent six months with the Lincolns 
in 1854-1855 to get a taste of Springfield society. 



There is no evidence as to where Harriet Chapman or Emilie Todd 
stayed while visiting the Lincolns. After the 1856 addition, the 

room most likely given to guests was the second floor south front 

12 
bedroom. Oral tradition supports this usage " and it seems rea- 
sonable to suppose that Mary Lincoln would have put her visitors 
in the best possible room. In 1859, a Miss Cochran visited the 
Lincoln home. On October 2 of that year, Mrs. Lincoln reported 

to her friend, Hannah Shearer, that "I have invited Miss Cochran 

13 
and she is spending some weeks with me...." 



14 
Mary, as Harriet Chapman described her, liked "to put on style." 

Moreover it was a common Victorian practice to close off those 

rooms reserved for company—frequently the nicest in the house. 

Mrs. John T. Stuart reinforced this view with the comment that at 

the time the Lincolns enlarged their house, Mary Lincoln seldom 

15 
used what she had solely for the family. 

There are no period sources that illuminate the use of the rooms 
on the second floor. Oral tradition places Mr. Lincoln in the 
north front bedroom, Mrs. Lincoln next to him on the north side 
with the two younger boys, Robert across the hall from Mrs. Lin- 
coln, and the maid at the end of the hall on the north, which 
leaves one room at the end of the hall on the south side, now 

1 c 

designated as the trunk room. The first written references to 
the use of the second floor occur in A.L. Bowen's "A. Lincoln: 
His House," L incoln Centennial Association Papers (Springfield, 
Illinois, 1925). According to Bowen, the boys slept in Mrs. Lin- 
coln's bedroom. 

Early in 1857, Mr. Lincoln traded in a trundle bed for a "cottage 

18 
bedstead." ' A trundle bed is one which pulls out from beneath a 

larger bed. The presence of a trundle bed indicates that several 

people in the Lincoln household were sleeping in the same room, 

most logically the children. There was evidently room for a 



regular bed in place of a trundle bed, thereby indicating that 
the children were being given additional space. 

There is evidence that the youngest child may have slept in his 
father's bed while the Lincoln family lived in the White House. 

According to John Hay, Lincoln's secretary at the White House, 

19 
Tad always slept with his father. This practice may have been 

continued from his earlier childhood in Springfield. 

The earliest known set of architectural drawings of the Lincoln 

Home that designates room usage was made about 1888 when the 

20 
house was given to the State. On these plans, the second floor 

rooms are labeled as bedrooms, with those rooms facing 8th Street 

designated as "Front bedrooms" and the remaining rooms as "Rear 

bedrooms." The first written identification of the south rear 

21 
bedroom as the trunk room dates to A.L. Bowen's article in 1925. 

The first floor rooms, however, are labeled more clearly as liv- 
ing room, front parlor, back parlor, dining room, kitchen, south 
porch, pantry, and old porch. 

Contemporary written and pictorial accounts of the Lincoln Home 
at the time of the Republican Convention Committee's visit to 
inform Lincoln of his nomination, confirms the usage of the first 
floor rooms suggested by the 1888 plans. One article describes 
the home as: 



II 



A large two-story wooden house, raised 
considerable above the level of the street, 
and dwarfing by its greater height and size, 
the adjoining buildings. .. .The door opens into 
a broad hall, with rooms upon either side. 
Mr. Lincoln, who had been apprized of our com- 
ing, stood at the back end of the double par- 
lor on the left, l^owhich was a bookcase 
fil led with law books. 



An article in the New York Evening Post said: 

I found Mr. Lincoln living in a handsome, 
but not pretentious, double-two story house, 
having a wide hall running throughout the 
centre, with parlors on both sides, neatly but 
not ostentatiously furnished.... 



Two other accounts state that the Committee gathered in the 
"large north parlor" where Lincoln stood in the east end of the 
room and after the Committee's presentation they then moved to 

the "south parlor" or the sitting room where Mrs. Lincoln had set 

24 

up refreshments. 

In February 1867, a newspaper article was written by the Reverend 

Edwin S. Walker who had visited the Lincoln Home in the fall of 

1866. His description included mention of the dining room and 

kitchen as used by the tenants of the home: 

Through the center of the house, east and 
west, is a hall, on the left of which are two 
parlors connected by folding doors.... On the 
south side of the hall is a sitting room 
fronting westward and southward; in the rear 
of this also fronting southward is the dining 
room, and still further east are the kitchen 
and other rooms occupying the east wing. 



11 



"Other rooms occupying the east wing" probably refers to the back 
porch and pantry. 

On March 9, 1861, Frank Leslie's Illustrated Magazine contained 
sketches of three of the first floor rooms, the front and back 
parlors and sitting room, which clearly show that the parlors 
were the Lincolns' more formal reception rooms and the sitting 
room was the family living area. 

The family living area had to accommodate a family with three 
very active boys. The Lincolns were indulgent parents and many 
tales of the boys' pranks have survived. Mrs. Lincoln is re- 
ported to have once said about disciplining her children, "They 
never required it, a gentle loving word was all sufficient with 
them." 27 

And, in one of the few existing personal letters written by Mr. 

Lincoln, he wrote of Bob who was off to college: 

Our eldest boy, Bob, had been away from 
us nearly a year at school, and will enter 
Harvard University this month. He promises 
very well, considering we never controlled him 
much. 

It seems likely that Lincoln, who was frequently away from home, 
probably did overindulge his children when he was with them. In 
later years, Robert commented: 



12 



My father's life was of a kind which gave 
me but little opportunity to learn the details 
of his early career. During my childhood and 
early youth, he was almost constantly away 
from home, attending courts or making politi- 
cal speeches. 



Family and neighbors' recollections show that Lincoln enjoyed his 
children and evidently spent as much time as he could with 
them. 

31 
Family evenings at home included blind man's bluff, chess, 

32 33 

checkers, and reading. Lincoln spent much of his spare time 

34 
reading and often read aloud. Harriet Chapman also remembered 

Lincoln lying on the floor, leaning his back against an upturned 

35 
chair, and reciting poetry. Mary, too, was an avid reader and 

occasionally reviewed works for Lincoln. 



At the time of Emilie Todd's visit, Mary was reading the novels 

of Sir Walter Scott to her son Bob. Emilie recounted an amusing 

occasion on which Bob enacted a Scott drama: 

...one day hearing sounds of strife, we 
ran to the window. Bob and a playmate were 
having a royal battle. Bob, with his sturdy 
little legs wide apart, was wielding a fence 
paling in lieu of a lance and proclaiming in a 
loud voice, 'this rock shall fly from its firm 
base as soon as I.' Mary, bubbling with 
laughter, called out, 'Grammercy, brave 
Knights. -,-, Pray be more merciful than you are 
brawny. ' 



13 



Mary also spent time sewing. She was an accomplished seamstress 

oo 

and sewed for herself and the boys. In one of her letters to 
Lincoln in Washington, she refers to the quantity of sewing 
required by the children. She wrote to him explaining why she 
desired to have a box of children's clothes sent to her, "...it 

takes so many changes to do children, particularly in summer, 

39 
that I thought it might save me a few stitches." During the 

Lincolns' last years in Springfield, however, Mary used a seam- 

40 
stress. 



In addition to the lively family, there is some evidence that the 
8th Street house sheltered at least one pet. A few years after 
their removal to Washington, Lincoln's friend and barber, William 

Florville, remarked in a letter, "Tell Taddy that his (and Wil- 

41 
lys) dog is alive and kicking doing well...." During their 

years in Springfield, the Lincolns probably had other pets as 

42 
well. Lincoln was known to be fond of cats, and Herndon once 

43 
commented that the Lincoln house was overrun with pets. 

After the Lincolns moved into the house on 8th Street, they 
probably had hired help of some sort. With Lincoln away as much 
as he was, it seems unlikely he would have left Mary alone with 
the household chores and the baby. Mary also regularly suffered 

from bad headaches and help with the children would have been 

44 
necessary at those times. Harriet Hanks Chapman may have 



14 



helped during the eighteen months she spent with the Lincolns; 
but, probably after the birth of the Lincolns' second child in 
1846, they had a regular servant. Correspondence between the 
Lincolns, while he was sitting in Congress and she was visiting 

her family, show the concern he had both with her health and that 

45 
she have help with the children. He urged her to hire someone 

while she was in Kentucky. If he was concerned about her in 
Lexington where her family had household servants, it seems 
unlikely that she would have been left without help in Spring- 
field during those early years. 

In the 1850 Springfield Census, a hired girl, Catherine Gordon 

(age 18, born in Ireland), is listed as a member of the Lincoln 

46 
household. The 1855 census also lists one unidentified female 

47 
between the ages of 10 and 20 as living in the Lincoln household. 

Catherine was evidently one of a succession of Irish girls; for, 

Mary wrote to her sister in 1856 commenting on Irish servants: 

If some of you Kentuckians, had to deal 
with the "Wild Irish," as we housekeepers are 
sometimes called upon to do, the South would 
certainly elect Mr. Fillmore next time. 

Herndon, in his biography of Lincoln, commented that Mary had 

49 
difficulty keeping servants because of her "peculiar nature;" 

however, most families had difficulties keeping hired help for 



15 



any length of time. Population studies have shown that nine- 
teenth century domestic workers in America were very transient. 

There is evidence that Mary had at least one servant for several 
years. In a letter, written to Hannah Shearer on October 2, 
1859, she remarked that "Mary, the same girl I had last winter, 

is still with me, a very faithful servant, has become as submis- 

.., „50 
sive as possible. 

"Mary" also may be the same "M. Johnson," a hired girl listed as 

51 
residing in the Lincoln household in the 1860 Census. In ad- 
dition to M. Johnson, the 1860 Census listed a fourteen-year-old 
boy, Phillip Dinkell, as a member of the household. One neigh- 
borhood boy reminisced that Mr. Lincoln used to pay him five 

52 

cents a night to stay in the house while he was away. Staying 

overnight at the Lincolns' may have been one of Phillip's major 
duties. A Mrs. Dinkell, according to the Springfield City Direc- 
tory, lived not far from the Lincolns and she may have been 
Phillip's mother. It seems likely, however, that Phillip also 
performed other chores. With Lincoln's political campaigning and 
the additional entertaining the Lincolns were doing in the years 
after they enlarged their house, they probably needed additional 
help. Up to that time, however, it seems they had only one 
servant. Emilie Todd recalled that just one girl helped Mary 



16 



53 
during her visit in 1854-1855. Certainly while campaigning, 

Lincoln had little time for the chores he used to do when they 

first moved into the house. 

Gustave Koerner remembered that at the time of the visit to the 
Lincoln home by the Republican nominating committee, a black man 

was helping Mrs. Lincoln set up refreshments and he referred to 

54 
Lincoln as "Master." He does not appear in any record, and it 

seems most probable that he was temporary help for the special 

occasion. 

When the Lincolns moved to the White House, they took two ser- 
vants with them from Springfield. Mary Lincoln wrote to her 
friend Mary Brayman in June 1861, commenting: 

In New York, I procured an excellent 
dressing maid and seamstress, the girl Ellen, 
whom I brought from S -- is not expert with 
her needle, or does not understand arranging 
or dressing a lady. Yet she is the most reli- 
able, truthful, kindhearted girl about chil- 
dren, I have ever known.... She is so kind I 
dislike to part with her, now as my boys, have 
grown too large, to require a nurse. We 
brought a man witbrUS, who takes care of them, 
most of the time. 

The Lincolns easily entered into Springfield social life. Mary 
had mingled in the best society in her home town, Lexington, 
Kentucky, and when she went to live with her well-to-do sister, 
Mrs. Ninian Edwards in 1839, she was launched into Springfield 



17 



Society. She became known as one of the town "belles." Lincoln 
was also a popular young man, well-known for his wit and enter- 
taining stories. Mary, like her sister, attended the Presbyteri- 
an Church and probably attended some of the Presbyterian Church 

56 
suppers, where Mrs. Edwards was famed for her chicken salad. 

After the Lincolns' marriage, they annually rented a pew. Al- 
though Mr. Lincoln was not a church member, he often accompanied 
Ma ry . 

Isaac Arnold, a friend of the Lincolns and a frequent visitor to 

Springfield, recalled "the dinners and evening parties given by 

57 
Mrs. Lincoln." He recounted: 

In her modest and simple home, everything 
orderly and refined, there was always, on the 
part of both host and hostess, a cordial and 
hearty Western welcome, which put every guest 
perfectly at ease. Mrs. Lincoln's table was 
famed for the excellence of many rare Kentucky 
dishes, and in season, it was loaded with 
venison, wild turkey, prairie chickens, quail 
and other game, which was abundant. Yet it 
was her genial manners and ever kind welcome, 
and Mr. Lincoln's wit and humour, anecdotes 
and unrivalled conversation, which formed the 
chief attraction. 

On several occasions when Lincoln was unable to accompany his 
wife to social functions, his law clerk Gibson Harris, escorted 
her. Harris' recollections include a vivid description of Mary's 
personality: 



18 



As a frequent visitor I was made welcome 
at the Lincoln home, and on two different oc- 
casions, at the insistence of Mr. Lincoln, he 
being unable to attend, I became Mrs. Lin- 
coln's escort to a ball where I danced with 
her. I always found her most pleasant-man- 
nered. She was a bright, witty and accom- 
plished young woman, naturally fond of fun and 
frolic, but yery staid and proper when it was 
in order to be so. I was impressed with her 
brilliant conversational powers, and the supe- 
rior education she constantly evinced. 



A letter written in November 1860 from the daughter of one of the 

Lincoln's friends, Ada Bailhache, to her mother, described both 

Lincolns: 

I spent an evening at Mr. Lincoln's a few 
evenings since and had a s/ery pleasant time. 
Mr. L. has not altered one bit — he amused us 
nearly all the evening telling funny stories 

and cracking jokes Mrs. L. is just as 

agreeable as ever, does not put on any airs at 
all but is pleasant and gtal kative and enter- 
taining as she can be. . . . 

Mrs. Lincoln's own correspondence provides several references to 
other evening parties. The following invitation to the wife of 
another Springfield lawyer was for an impromptu gathering at the 
Lincolns'. Mary wrote to Mary Brayman on a Saturday afternoon in 
1857, "...we would be much pleased to have you, Mr. B -- and the 
young ladies come round, this eve about seven and pass a social 
evening also any friend you may have with you." Another example 
of a small party at the Lincoln home may be found in Mrs. Lin- 



19 



coin's correspondence to Hannah Shearer in April 1859; she wrote, 

"Mr. Dubois' family and Mr. Hatch took tea with us a few evenings 

.,62 
since. ... 



The Lincolns were particularly busy during Christmas, New Years, 
the first part of the year when the state legislature met, and in 
June during berry season. They were hosted by their friends and 
neighbors and periodically gave large entertainments themselves. 
The earliest evidence of large parties at the Lincoln home is a 
check written by Lincoln to W.W. Watson, confectioners, in Decem- 
ber 1855. Watson was famous for his macaroon pyramids, accord- 
ing to Caroline Owsley Brown, a pre-Civil War Springfield resi- 
dent. She wrote: 

Mr. Watson, the confectioner, way back in 
the forties, had gone to St. Louis to learn to 
make the famous macaroon pyramids, without 
which no party table was complete, each New 
Year's table bore one of these, sticky monu- 
ments as its central adornment. 

Watson also advertised such items as, "Fresh Baltimore Oysters in 
cans, Hamburgh Cheese, W.R. Cheese, Pine Apple Cheese, Sardines, 
Zante Currants, Citron, Almonds, English Walnuts, Cranberries, 

Crackers, Assorted 100 Boxes Candies, Cove Oysters, Sultana 

65 
Raisins, Belden's Sugars, Brazil Nuts, and Fireworks." 

Mr. Lincoln's check to Watson probably covered accumulated 
charges, including the famed macaroon pyramids. One recorded 



20 



instance of Mrs. Lincoln's use of these confections is a re- 
collection that after a party in 1861 she gave one to a neighbor 

fifi 
who had just had a baby. 

On New Year's Day it was customary in Springfield for the resi- 
dents to hold open house. On New Year's, in 1860, Mrs. Lincoln 
commented to her friend Hannah Shearer, "...tomorrow I must rise 
early, as it is receiving day...." A vivid description of this 
custom and the need for arising early may be found in Mrs. 
Brown's account: 

As a child, I can remember the great hur- 
ry and flurry that stirred the household on 
this festive occasion, to get the parlors to a 
comfortable degree of temperature, for some 
early birds came about 9 o'clock, and they 
were generally quite old birds that should 
have known better. . . . 

In this icy atmosphere egg-nogg was very 
tempting, and many a young gallant found it 
hard to stand upright about six P.M. At each 
house the caller was expected to eat oysters, 
chicken-salad, drink coffee, put down a saucer 
of ice-cream and cake, and nibble a few bon- 
bons. Where the oranges came in I do not 
know, but this I can confirm, that with skins 
cut in fancy shapes, they were always present 
on the table, as well as raisins, almonds, and 
white grapes. The first oranges of the season 
came at Christmas and the New Year, and yery 
seldom at any other time.... 

In February of 1857 and 1859, at which time the legislature was 
meeting, the Lincolns gave large parties. Ruth Painter Randall, 
in her biography of Mary Lincoln, described these parties as 



21 



69 
"political entertaining" by the Lincolns. Mary Lincoln wrote 

to her sister Emilie Helm about the party she and Mr. Lincoln 

gave on February 5, 1857: 

Within the last three weeks, there has 
been a party, almost every night and some two 
or three grand fetes, are coming off this week 
— I may perhaps surprize you, when I mention 
that I am recovering from the slight fatigue 
of a very large and I really believe a very 
handsome and agreeable entertainment, at least 
our friends flatter us by saying so — About 
500 were invited yet owing to an unlucky cai n , 
300 only favored us by their presence.... 

For such large entertainments, Caroline Owsley recounted that it 
was customary to dismantle the beds to allow for more room. 

Lincoln, himself, took part in the preparations for this party; 
several of the extant invitations are in his hand. They read, 

"Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln will be pleased to see you Thursday evening 

72 
February 5 at 8 o'clock." Henry G. Little, one of the legisla- 
tors who attended the party in February 1857, later remembered 
the food arrangement and a comment made to him by Mr. Lincoln: 

A long table was stretched nearly the 
whole length of the room, while above the ta- 
ble was a succession of shelves growing nar- 
rower upward. On these shelves the edibles 
were placed, and the guests. . .were left to 
help themselves, the waiters serving only 
coffee. 

Lincoln joined Little before the table and asked jokingly, "Do 

74 
they give you anything to eat here?" 



22 



A different kind of party was given in June, during berry season. 
Mrs. Lincoln wrote to her friend Hannah Shearer in 1859 describ- 
ing her recent activities: 

For the last two weeks, we have had a 
continual round of strawberry parties, this 

last week I have spent five evenings out 

This last week, we gave a strawberry company 
of about seventy.... After raspberry time,rwe 
will resume, doubtless our usual quiet.... 

John T. Stuart wrote to his daughter (June 2, 1856) describing 

one of these strawberry parties: 

I was invited to Cousin Ann's today after 
Church to eat strawberries and ice cream. We 
had a fine dinner and plenty of cream and 
berries. Lincoln and Cousin Mary^Mother and 
Myself and Dr. Wallace were there. 

The Springfield children occasionally had their own festivities 
to attend. In January 1856, the governor held a party at his new 
residence for the Springfield young people on the evening fol- 
lowing a party he gave for their parents. John Stuart described 
the celebration (January 13, 1856) to his daughter: 

The next evening all the small "folks" 
were invited.... The house was full of boys 
and girls. The gas was in full operation — 
the band was in attendance — all the rooms 
were thrown open, and all the children danced 
or at least hopped around. John [Stuart, Jr.] 
danced all evening in his way. Next day he 
and Bob, 7 Lincoln were hunting up the dancing 
master. 



23 



Robert joined the Springfield Cadets, an organization of Spring- 

78 
field youth. They practiced military drill, marched in pa- 
rades, and attended evening parties given in their honor. On 
July 3, 1858, the Cadets placed a notice in the Illinois State 
Journal thanking one of their hosts: 

The Springfield Cadets return their sin- 
cere thanks to Gen. John Cook for the elegant 
entertainment and other courtesies received at 
his residence. . .on Thursday evening.... 

Robert's younger brother, Willie, had a grand celebration, a com- 
bination birthday and going-away party, given December 21, 1860. 
"Willie's birthday came off on the 21st of December," Mrs. Lin- 
coln wrote Hannah Shearer, "and as I had long promised him a 

celebration, it duly came off. Some 50 or 60 boys and girls 

80 
attended the gala. ..." 

The Lincolns, themselves, held a final, grand going-away party, 
February 6, 1861, before moving into the Chenery House Hotel 
where they made their final arrangements for moving to Washing- 
ton. A correspondent of the St. Louis Missouri Democrat who 
attended the Lincolns' "levee," as it was called, reported: 

It was a great outpouring of citizens and 
strangers, together with the members of the 
Legislature. Your humble servant was invited 
to attend. Mr. Lincoln threw open his house 
for a general reception of all the people who 
felt disposed to give him and his lady a 
parting call. The levee lasted from seven to 



24 



twelve o'clock in the evening, and the house 
thronged by thousands up to a late hour. Mr. 
Lincoln received the guests as they entered 



and were made known, 
were introduced to 
near the center of 
yiust say, acquitted 
and admirably. She 
richly. She wore 



They then passed on, and 
Mrs. Lincoln, who stood 
the parlors, and who, I 

herself most gracefully 

was dressed plainly, but 

a beautiful, full train 



white moire antique silk, with a small French 
lace collar. Her neck was ornamented with a 
string of pearls. Her head dress was a simple 
and delicate vine arranged with much taste. 

She displayed but little jewelry, and 
this was well and appropriately adjusted. She 
is a lady of fine figure and accomplished ad- 
dress, and is well calculated to grace and do 
honors at the White House. 



From these accounts of the daily life and entertaining of the 

Lincolns, it is apparent that they changed the small house on 8th 

Street into an acceptable house for substantial gatherings and 
for raising their active family. The evidence about the family's 

size, economic status, and social schedule also indicate that the 

house was a very lively, and quite lived-in structure while the 
Lincolns called it home. 



25 



FOOTNOTES TO SECTION C 



1. James T. Hickey, "The Lincolns Globe Tavern, A 

Study in Tracing the History of a Nineteenth Century Building," 

The Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society , LVI, no. 4, 
Winter, 1963, p. 638. 



2. Harry E. Pratt, The Personal Finances of Abraham 
Lincoln (Springfield, Illinois: The Abraham Lincoln Association 
1943), p. 84. 

3. Ibid., p. viii. 



4. John Paul Frank, Lincoln As A Lawyer (Urbana:Univer- 
sity of Illinois Press, 1961), p. 40. 



5. Pratt, Finances , p. 82 



6. See Ruth Painter Randall, Li ncoln's Sons (Boston and 
Toronto: Little, Brown & Co., 1955). 



7. See William E. Baringer, Lincoln Day By Day: A Chron - 
ology 1809-1865 (Washington: Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission, 
I960) for a record of the Lincolns' parties. Two examples of 
large parties given after 1856 may be found on pp. 189 and 242. 



8. Edwin C. Bearss, Historic Structure Report, Lincoln 
Home National Historic Site, Illinois (Denver Service Center, 
National Park Service, July, 1973), pp. 17-18, 94. 



9. Gibson William Harris, "My Recollections of Abraham 
Lincoln," Woman's Home Companion , November, 1903, p. 11. 



10. According to James Hickey, Curator of the Lincoln 
Collection, Illinois State Historical Library, Harriet Chapman 
came to the Lincoln home to work as a hired girl. 



C6 



11. Katherine Helm, Ma ry, Wife of Lincoln (New York and 
London: Harper and Brothers, 1928), pp. 106-112. 



12. Bearss, Historic Structure Report , p. 108, and A.L. 
Bowen, "A. Lincoln: His House" in Lincoln Centennial Association 
Papers (Springfield, Illinois: Lincoln Centennial Association, 
1925), pp. 44-45. 



13. Mary Lincoln to Hannah Shearer, October 2, 1854, 
quoted in Justin G. Turner and Linda Levitt Turner, Mary Todd 
Lincoln: Her Life and Letters (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1972), 
p. 59. 



14. Chapman to Herndon, December 10, 1866, Herndon-Weik 
Collection. 



15. Mrs. John T. Stuart to Elizabeth Stuart, April 3, 
1856 quoted in Bearss, Historic Structure Report , p. 17. 



16. Bearss, Historic Structure Report , p. 108. 

17. A.L. Bowen, "A. Lincoln: His House." Lincoln 
Centennial Association Papers (Springfield, Illinois: Privately 
Printed, 1925), p. 44. 

18. Pratt, Finances , p. 92. 



19. John Hay to William Herndon, September 5, 1866, 
quoted in The Hidden Lincoln , p. 307. 



20. Copy of Lincoln Home drawings obtained from Ferry 
and Henderson, Architects, Inc., 1320 South State Street, Spring- 
field, Illinois, 62704. 



21. Bowen, "A. Lincoln," p. 45, 



11 



22. New York Commercial Advertiser , May 25; the New 
York Evening Post , May 26; and the New York Sun , May 30, June 9, 
1860 quoted in Bearss, Historic Structure Report , p. 23. 



23. New York Evening Post , May 23, 1860 quoted in Ken- 
neth Scott, "Lincoln's Home in 1860," The Journal of the Illinois 
State Historical Society , 46, no. 1, (1953), pp. 7-8. 



24. New York Daily Tribune , May 25, 1860, quoted in 
Bearss, Historic Structure Report , p. 24; and Gustave Koerner, 
Memoirs of Gustave Koerner , 1809-1896 (Cedar Rapids: The Torch 
Press, 1909), Vol. II, pp. 93-95. 



25. Edwin S. Walker quoted in Scott, "Lincoln's Home 
in 1860," p. 12. 



26. Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861 



27. Ruth Painter Randall, I, Mary (Boston and Toronto: 
Little, Brown and Company, 1959), p. 111. 



28. Abraham Lincoln to Dr. A. G. Henry, July 4, 1860 
quoted in Paul Angle, ed., The Lincoln Reader (New Brunswick, 
New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1947), pp. 283-284. 



29. Randall, Lincoln's Sons , p. 51. 

30. See Ruth Painter Randall's Lincoln's Sons 

31. Randall, Mary Lincoln , p. 92. 



32. Katherine Helm, Mary, Wife of Lincoln (New York 
and London: Harper and Brothers, 1928), p. 110. 



28 



33. Harriet Chapman to William Herndon, November 21, 
1866, Herndon-Weik Collection. 



34. William H. Herndon and Jesse W. Weik, Abraha m 
Lincoln: The True Story of a Great Life , Vol. II (New York: 
D. Appleton and Company, 1896), p. 1; and Chapman to Herndon, 
November 21, 1866, Herndon-Weik Collection. 



35. Chapman to Herndon, November 21, 1866, Herndon-Weik 
Col lection. 



36. Katherine Helm, Ma ry , p. 108. 

37. Ibid., p. 108. 



38. Emilie Todd Helm, "Mary Todd Lincoln: Reminiscences 
and Letters of the Wife of President Lincoln," McClure's Magazine , 
September 1898, p. 479. 



39. Mary Lincoln to Abraham Lincoln, May 1848 quoted 
in Paul Angle, ed., The Lincoln Reader , pp. 147-148. 



40. See reference to seamstresses in Mary Lincoln to 
Hannah Shearer, April 24, 1859 (incomplete) quoted in Turner, 
Mary Todd Lincoln , p. 55. 



41. Randall, Mary Lincoln , p. 155. 

42. Ibid., p. 149. 

43. Randall, Lincoln's Sons , p. 44. 



44. Carl Sandburg and Paul M. Angle, Mary Lincoln, Wife 
and Widow (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1939), p. 67; and Abraham 
Lincoln to Mary Lincoln, April 16, 1848, quoted in Paul Angle, ed., 
The Lincoln Reade r, pp. 146-147. Lincoln wrote: 
"And you are entirely free from headache? That is good—consider- 
ing it is the first spring you have been free from it since we were 
acquainted " 



29 



45. Abraham Lincoln to Mary Lincoln, July 2, 1848, quoted 
in Angle, Lincoln Reader , pp. 150-151. 



46. P opulation Schedules of the Seventh Census of 
t he United States, 1850, Illinois, Saline and Sangamon Counties , 
National Archives and Records Service, Washington, D. C. 



47. Wayne C. Temple, "Lincoln in the Census," Lincoln 
Herald , vol. 68, no. 3 (1966), p. 138. 



48. Mary Lincoln to Emi lie Todd Helm, November 23, 1856 
quoted in Turner, Mary Todd Lincoln , p. 46. 



49. Herndon, Abraham Lincol n, vol. II, p. 137. 



50. Mary Lincoln to Hannah Shearer, October 2, 1859, 
quoted in Turner, Mary Todd Lincoln , p. 59. 



51. Po pulation Schedules of the Eighth Census of the 
United States, 1860, Illinois, Sangamon County , NARS. 



52. Randall, Mary Lincoln , p. 61. 

53. (Catherine Helm, Mary ; recollections of Emilie Todd, 
p. 112. 

54. Gustave Koerner, Memoirs , II, pp. 93-94. 



55. Mary Lincoln to Mary Brayman, June 17, 1861, quoted 
in Turner, Mary Todd Lincoln , p. 90. 



56. Caroline Owsley Brown, "Springfield Society Before 
the Civil War," Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society , 
vol . 15, nos. 1-2, p. 479. 



30 



57. Isaac Arnold's Addresses to the Illinois State Bar 
Association (1881) quoted in Pratt, Finances , p. 94. 



58. Ibid., p. 94. 

59. Harris, "Recollections of Lincoln," p. 11 



60. Ada Bailhache to Mrs. William Bailhache, Novem- 
ber 20, 1860, quoted in Pratt, "Concerning Mr. Lincoln," p. 32. 



61. Mary Lincoln to Mary Brayman, "Saturday afternoon," 
1857, quoted in Turner, Mary Todd Lincoln , p. 51. 



62. Mary Lincoln to Hannah Shearer, April 24, 1859, 
quoted in Turner, Mary Todd Lincoln , p. 55. 



63. Pratt, Finances , p. 92. 

64. Brown, "Springfield Society," pp. 494-495, 



65. Daily Illinois State Journal , January 7, 1857, 
W. W. Watson advertisement, p. 4. 



66. Randall, Mary Lincoln , p. 153, 



67. Mary Lincoln to Hannah Shearer, January 1, 1860, 
quoted in Turner, Mary Todd Lincoln , p. 61. 



68. Brown, "Springfield Society," p. 4 C 4. 

69. Randall, Mary Lincoln , p. 176. 



31 



70. Mary Lincoln to Emi lie Helm, February 16, 1857, 
quoted in Turner, Mary Todd Lincoln , p. 48. 



71. Brown, "Springfield Society," p. 483. 

72. Basler, Collected Works , p. 388. 

73. Henry G. Little, quoted in Randall, Lin coln's Sons , 



p. 60. 



74. Ibid., p. 60. 



75. Mary Lincoln to Hannah Shearer, June 26, 1854. 
quoted in Turner, Mary Todd Lincoln , p. 55. 



76. John T. Stuart to his daughter, June 2, 1856, 
quoted in Pratt, Finances , p. 97. 



77. John T. Stuart to his daughter, January 13, 1856, 
quoted Ibid. , p. 97. 



78. Randall, Li ncoln's Sons , p. 59. 



79. Illinois State Journal, July 3, 1858, quoted in 
Randall, Lincoln's Sons , p. 59. 



80. Mary Lincoln to Hannah Shearer, January 1, 1860, 
quoted in Turner, Mary Todd Lincoln , p. 61. 



81. St. Louis Missouri Democrat , February, 1861, quoted 
in Pratt, Personal Finances , p. 98. 



32 



SECTION D: EVIDENCE OF ORIGINAL FURNISHINGS 

INTRODUCTION 

The evidence of original Lincoln Home furnishings includes a wide 
variety of sources: drawings and photographs, contemporary ac- 
counts, evidence of the 1861 sale of Lincoln furniture, Spring- 
field account books which list Lincoln family purchases, existing 
furniture, and records of furniture which is now missing. As new 
documentation is found, it should be added to this report. One 
area which needs further research is past exhibitions (such as 
state centennial exhibitions) of Lincolniana. 

This material has been organized by location within the house 
(first floor, kitchen, and second floor furnishings) with sepa- 
rate sections on accessory furnishings, floor coverings, tex- 
tiles, and wallpaper. The first floor furnishings are also di- 
vided into well-documented items and not wel 1 -documented items 
and are listed alphabetically by type of artifact. The contempo- 
rary accounts and pictorial evidence are discussed separately and 
by reference in the discussions of different areas. 

CONTEMPORARY ACCOUNTS 

Although some information is available for the entire historic 
period, many accounts describing Lincoln's home were written at 
the time of his nomination for the presidency. The following 



33 



pages, presented in chronological order, present those accounts 
that refer to the interior appointments of the house, including 
several written by Lincoln's contemporaries but after Lincoln's 
death. One of these accounts lists Lincoln furniture purchased 
by the Lucien Tiltons who rented the Lincoln home while Lincoln 
was President. These accounts focus on the first floor rooms, 
primarily the east and west parlors. A summary of the furniture 
mentioned begins on page 43: 



Account by Charles Carleton Coffin, western correspondent of the 
Boston Journal , May 1860, quoted in Paul Angle, ed., The Lincoln 
Reader (New~B~runswick, 1947), pp. 278-280. 

...I crossed the hall and entered the library. 
There were miscellaneous books on the shelves, 
two globes, celestial and terrestrial, in the 
corners of the room, a plain table with writ- 
ing materials upon it, a pitcher of cold wa- 
ter, and glasses, but no wines or liquors.... 

2 
Springfield (Mass.) Republican , May 23, 1860. 

As nearly as could be made out in the 
evening light [of May 19], his dwelling house 
is of the style and character suited to his 
position in life. It is a two-story wooden 
house of more than ordinary good exterior; and 
the interior arrangements are such as show 
that good taste and good domestic rule reigns 
within. The furniture, without pretension to 
show, was neat, and in admirable keeping with 
what is understood to be his moderate pecuni- 
ary ability. Everything tended to represent 
the home of a man who has battled hard with 
the fortunes of life, and whose hard experi- 
ence has taught him to enjoy whatever of 
success belongs to him, rather in solid sub- 
stance than in showy display. 



34 



New York Evening Post , May 23, I860. 3 

I found Mr. Lincoln living in a handsome, 
but not pretentious, double two-story house, 
having a wide hall running through the centre, 
with parlors on both sides, neatly, but not 
ostentatiously furnished. It was just such a 
dwelling as a majority of the well-to-do res- 
idents of these fine western towns occupy. 
Everything about it had a look of comfort and 
independence. The library, I remarked on 
passing, particularly, that I was pleased to 
see long rows of books, which told of scholar- 
ly tastes and culture of the family. 



New York Commercial Advertiser , May 25; the New^York Evening Post , 
May 26; and New York Sun , May 30, June 9, 1860. 

The door opens into a broad hall, with 
rooms upon either side. Mr. Lincoln, who had 
been apprised of our coming, stood at the back 
end of the double parlor on the left, — in 
which was a bookcase filled with law bookst- 
and the committee and other guests upon enter- 
ing grouped themselves around him. 

By editorial correspondent of The Utica Morning Herald , letter 
dated Springfield, Illinois, June 21, 1860, and reprinted in 
the New York Semi-Weekly of July 6, 1860, under the caption, 
"An Evening with Lincoln." Ed. 

I have an instinctive aversion to dogging 
the footsteps of distinguished men. Nothing 
was farther from my thoughts four days ago 
than a visit to Abraham Lincoln. Nothing 
seemed more impossible than that I should ever 
— before or after his election to the Presi- 
dency — join the great mob of those who should 
'pay him their respects'.... 

I had little difficulty in finding the 
place of my destination. A modest-looking 
two-story brown frame house, with the name 
"A. Lincoln" on the door plate, told me that 



35 



my pilgrimage was ended. I was met at the 
door by a servant, who ushered me into the 
parlor, and carried my note to Mr. Lincoln, 
who was upstairs. The house was neatly with- 
out being extravagantly furnished. An air of 
quiet refinement pervaded the place. You 
would have known instantly that she who pre- 
sided over that modest household was a true 
type of American lady. There were flowers 
upon the table; there were pictures upon the 
walls. The adornments were few, but chastely 
appropriate; everything was in its place, and 
ministered to the general effect. The hand of 
the domestic artist was everywhere visible. 
The thought that involuntarily blossomed into 
speech was, "What a pleasant home Abe Lincoln 
has." 

Presently, I heard footsteps on the 
stairs, and a tall, arrowy, angular gentleman, 
with a profusion of wiry hair "lying around 
loose" about his head, and a pair of eyes that 
seemed to say "make yourself at home," and a 
forehead remarkably broad and capacious, and 
arms that were somewhat too long and lank for 
a statue of Apollo, made his appearance. The 
lips were full of character, the nose strongly 
aquiline, the cheekbones high and prominent, 
and the whole face indicative at once of good- 
ness and resoluteness. In repose, it had 
something of rigidity, but when in play, it 
was one of the most eloquent I have ever seen. 
None of his pictures do him the slightest jus- 
tice. His presence is commanding — his manner 
winning to a marked degree. After you have 
been five minutes in his company you cease to 
think that he is either homely or awkward. 
You recognize in him a high-toned, unassuming, 
chivalrous-minded gentleman, fully posted in 
all the essential amenities of social life, 
and sustained by the infallible monitor of 
common sense. 

He approached, extended his hand, and 
gave mine a grasp such as only a warm-hearted 
man knows how to give. He sat down beside me 



36 



on the sofa, and commenced talking about po- 
litical affairs in my own State with a knowl- 
edge of details which surprised me.... 

New York Herald , June 26, I860. 6 

Mr. Lincoln lives in a plain brown two- 
story wooden house, a little off at one side 
of the city, which is without ornament on it 
or in its grounds around it. Everything be- 
speaks a becoming absence of affectation and 
love of show, and an almost becoming absence 
of taste and refinement. .. .The internal ap- 
pointments of his house are plain but taste- 
ful, and clearly show the impress of Mrs. Lin- 
coln's hand, who is really an amiable and ac- 
complished lady. 

New York Herald , August 13, I860. 7 

In a large two-story frame house, bearing 
no slight resemblance to Washington's head- 
quarters at Cambridge, Massachusetts, now the 
residence of Professor [Henry Wadsworth] 
Longfellow, resides the Republican candidate 
for President of the United States, Abraham 
Lincoln. It is situated at the corner of 
Eighth and Jackson Streets in this city. 

Here Mr. Lincoln has resided for some 
twenty years, since 1844. The edifice affords 
no indications of ostentation. It has no or- 
naments, no flowers or shrubbery, no marble 
vases or cooling fountains, no fashionable 
fences surrounding it, but is built plumb out 
to the sidewalk, the steps rather encroaching 
on the walk. It is like the residence of an 
American gentleman in easy circumstances, and 
is furnished in like manner. It is not near 
so aristocratic an establishment as the houses 
of many members of your Common Council. In 
short, there is no ar is tec racy about it; but 
it is a comfortahle, cosy home, in which it 
would seem that a man could enjoy life, sur- 
rounded by his family. 



37 



o 

Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , November 17, 1860. 

It [the Home] stands on a sort of plat- 
form of brickwork, and is two stories high, 
having two windows on each side of the door 
and five on the upper story. The side view 
shows it has an extension and side entrance 
with a receding stoop running the whole length 
of the extension. In the rear are the stables 
and barn. The edifice is painted a pale choc- 
olate color, and the window blinds are of deep 
green. The roof extends a little over the 
edges, like that of a Swiss cottage. The 
rooms are elegantly and comfortably furnished 
with strong well-made furniture, made for use 
and not show. On the front is a black door 
plate, on which, in silvered Roman characters, 
is inscribed the magical name "A. Lincoln." 

q 
Frank Leslie's Illustrated Weekly Magazine , March 9, 1861. 

...simply and plainly fitted up, but are not 
without indications of taste and refinement. 
They are the "leisure-rooms," as parlors might 
properly be called, of the great majority of 
Americans in comfortable circumstances in 
country towns, and will doubtless suggest to 
the reader many a pleasant hour passed in such 
apartments. .. .The rooms are elegantly and 
comfortably furnished with strong well-made 
furniture, made for use and not for show. 



Chicago Tribune , May 6, 1865. 

There is little of the furniture in the 
house which belonged to Mr. Lincoln. In the 
front parlor is a whatnot and a small marble- 
topped table on which was lying a beautiful 
cross of white camellias. In the back parlor, 
which he was accustomed to use as his study, 
is his bookcase. This was his favorite room, 
and here he toiled and wrote unconsciously 
preparing himself for the great mission he was 
to fulfill.... A heavy oaken bedstead and a 
chamber set conclude the relics. 



38 



The following article is dated February 18, 1867, but the news- 
paper is not identified; found in Kenneth Scott, "Lincoln's Home 
in 1860," Journal of the Illinois State Historical Socie ty, Vol. 
XLVI, No. 1, p. 12. 

The plain, two-story brown house in which 
Mr. Lincoln lived, is well represented in the 
steel engraving found in Dr. [Joseph G.] 
Holland's Life of Lincoln . It is located on 
Eighth Street, two or three blocks southeast 
from the State House. Fronting westward and 
southward on two streets, it stands about fif- 
teen feet from the sidewalk, its sombre aspect 
in full keeping with the memories which clus- 
ter around it. 

A single elm tree, half a foot or so in 
diameter, near the edge of the sidewalk, is 
the only object which relieves the eye from a 
full view of the house. On the south, a close 
board fence encloses the lot two-thirds of its 
length, the rest of the yard, including that 
in front of the house, being enclosed with a 
plain picket fence. A climbing rose with a 
few other shrubs are the only natural orna- 
ments which adorn the place. 

Through the centre of the house, east and 
west, is a hall, on the left of which are two 
parlors connected by folding doors.... On the 
south side of the hall is a sitting room 
fronting westward and southward; in the rear 
of this, also fronting southward, is the 
dining room, and still further east are the 
kitchen and other rooms occupying the east 
wing. 

On the rear of the lot resting on the al- 
ley, is a small barn and woodshed combined, 
covered with boards rough from the saw, and 
browned by the weather. The whole establish- 
ment is embraced in a single lot, sixty by one 
hundred and sixty feet [152 feet] in size. It 
is a type of republican simplicity, which con- 
trasts widely with the extensive mansion and 
numerous outbuildings, the once beautiful gar- 



39 



dens, the extended lawns, and broad fields of 
Mt. Vernon. The latter was a home illustra- 
tive of the tastes of the Virginia cavalier, 
not more so than was the plain brown house in 
Springfield, a home in keeping with the tastes 
of the Illinois lawyer. 



J.S. Bliss to W.H. Herndon^January 29, 1867, Herndon-Weik Collec- 
tion, Library of Congress. 

I presented myself to the door of our 
nominee. . . . 

I was ushered into the sitting room by 
the young man who answered the bell, and from 
that place, I sent my verbal card to Mr. Lin- 
coln. . . . 

I was sitting opposite the door and part- 
ly in sight of the stairs. After a short 
time, Mr. L. came tripping down the stairs, as 
lively as a young man of sixteen years of age 
— sliding his right hand on the bannister. 
He approached me and after shaking hands — we 
were soon immersed in a lively conversation on 
various topics. 

As I was from near Madison, Wisconsin, he 
was anxious too and did inquire as to the re- 
sources and development, to which I replied to 
the best of my ability. 

He spoke of the press in Wisconsin, and 
gave readily the course they had pursued (es- 
pecially some of the Milwaukee papers) as 
readily as a resident of that city. 

While sitting there, the chimney swallows 
came down behind the fire boards, and abso- 
lutely twittered, fluttered, and sung as to 
nearly drown our voices. 

I remarked that these birds rarely de- 
scend so low but Mr. L. replied "that they 
usually come down once a day!" 



40 



On a section of the wall of his parlor, 
hung a picture of himself and Mr. Herndon; 
since he said he had not seen Mr. Herndon yet, 
whereupon, I took the liberty to remark, that 
they would meet in the city of Washington, ere 
long to which he smiled in his thin, then, 
usual good natured style. 

We stepped to the opposite side of the 
room where was one of the best executed pic- 
tures of Mr. Lincoln I had ever seen and it 
was this one, I was paying rather more than 
ordinary attention. 

He was immediately at my left, and point- 
ing to it, said — "that picture, gives a yery 
fair representation of my homely face." 

A whatnot in the corner of the room was 
laden with various kinds of shells, I took one 
in my hand and said: 

"This, I suppose, is called a (Trowsby?) 
to a geologist or naturalist." Mr. Lincoln 
replied, "I do not know for I never studied 
it." 

....Mr. Lincoln following without his hat -- 
continuing conversation, shook hands across 
the gate ! 

Memoirs of Gustave Koerner , 1809-1896. Vol. II, pp. 93-95 

A committee made up by the vice-presi- 
dent, headed by Ashmun, the president, had 
been appointed to inform Mr. Lincoln of his 
nomination. They were to start in the morning 
on an extra train. I went down to Springfield 
on the regular train, and arrived a few hours 
before the committee did. In company with E. 
Peck, later one of the judges of the Court of 
Claims in Washington, I called on Mr. Lincoln 
at his handsome, but unpretending frame house 
in a quiet part of the city. Entering the 
hall, on the right, there was a library or 
sitting room, which was joined at the south by 



13 



41 



another, probably the dining room. The door 
of the first room was open, and there was a 
sort of long table set on one side, on which 
stood many glasses, a decanter or two of 
brandy, and under the table a champagne bas- 
ket. Cakes and sandwiches were just being 
placed on the table by a colored man. We went 
in there first, and asked the servant what the 
proceeding meant. "0, this is for the Chicago 
folks, that come down to congratulate master." 
Presently, Mrs. Lincoln came in. After the 
customary "how do you do's?", she asked us 
what we thought of setting out this lunch for 
the committee. We told her at once that this 
would hardly do. This meeting of the commit- 
tee would be a somewhat solemn business. 
Several, perhaps, of the Eastern men were 
strictly temperance people, and they might 
think treating the committee would not be the 
proper thing. She remonstrated in her very 
lively manner, but we insisted on dispensing 
with this hospitality, which we appreciated 
ourselves, but which might be misconstrued. I 
finally told the black man bluntly to take the 
things out into the back room, which he did. 
But, Mrs. Lincoln still argued with us. 
Lincoln, being in the parlor right opposite, 
came in, and learning of the trouble, said: 
"Perhaps, Mary, these gentlemen are right. 
After all is over, we may see about it, and 
some may stay and have a good time." 

We went to the parlor and gave Mr. Lin- 
coln a good many particulars about the Conven- 
tion, which, of course, interested him much. 
Some very humorous remarks were made about it, 
Mr. Peck himself being a very witty and lively 
talker. Some other of Mr. Lincoln's particu- 
lar friends called in. About six o'clock in 
the evening, the committee called, and after 
the usual salutation, — Mr. Lincoln standing 
on the threshold of the back parlor and lean- 
ing somewhat on an armchair, — the committee 
formed before him in the front parlor, and Mr. 
Ashmun very formally addressed him in a well- 
considered speech. Mr. Lincoln looked much 



42 



moved, and rather sad, evidently feeling the 
heavy responsibility thrown upon him. He 
replied briefly, but very pointedly. Somehow, 
all of us felt more serious than the occasion 
called for. All appeared to have a foreboding 
of the eventfulness of the moment, and all 
felt that in this contest there was more than 
the mere possession of power and office at 
stake, nay, the vital principle of our nation- 
al existence. Ice water, it being a very hot 
evening, was the only refreshment served. 

The Republican Committee of Springfield 
had arranged an elegant supper for the commit- 
tee at the hotel. After that, everyone re- 
paired to the State House and the square 
around it, where a vast deal of speaking and 
cheering was going on. 

Raymond made a most capital speech in the 
hall of the House of Representatives, — one of 
the finest of the kind I ever heard. He was 
one of the great lights of the Republican 
party of New York. The whole town was alive 
all night. Champagne flowed in the hotels; 
toast followed toast. Bands of music played 
in the streets. Fireworks were let off. Even 
the Democrats, who all liked Lincoln personal- 
ly, joined in the jubilee. 

Abraham Lincoln by Some Men Who Knew Him , "Recollections of Judge 
Frankl in Blades," p. 121. 

On being ushered upstairs I found Mr. 
Lincoln and the Democratic State Auditor... 
sitting on a high post bed, chatting with each 
other, Mr. Lincoln particularly greeting all 
who came into the room. Mr. Lincoln was not 
then talked of for the presidency. 



Summary of Furnishings Documented by Contemporary Accounts 
Front Parlor : 
Whatnot 15 



43 



I c 

Small marble-topped table 

Fireboards 

18 
A picture of himself [Lincoln] and Mr. Herndon 

A picture of Mr. Lincoln (opposite wall from picture 
of Lincoln and Herndon) 

20 

A whatnot in the corner of the room 

21 
Various kinds of shells (on whatnot) 

22 

A Trowsby shel 1 

23 
Flowers upon the table 

24 
Pictures upon the walls 

A sofa 

Back Parlor : 

D I 26 

Bookcase 

27 
Long rows of books (in the Library) 

28 
Arm chair (near threshold of hall and parlor) 

29 
Two globes, celestial and terrestrial 

A plain table with writing materials yaon it, a 
pitcher of cold water, and glasses. 

Sitting Room : 

A sort of long table set on one side, on which 
stand many glasses, a decanter or two of, brandy, 
and under the table a champagne basket. 

Bedroom : 

32 

Heavy oaken bedstead 

33 
Chamber Set; and high post bed 

Windows : 

Deep green window blinds. 



44 



THE LINCOLNS' 1861 SALE OF HOUSEHOLD FURNISHINGS 

In February 1861, before their departure for Washington, the Lin- 

colns sold many of their household furnishings. The following 

advertisement for their sale appeared January 29, 1861: 

At Private Sale — The furniture consisting of 
parlor and chamber sets, carpets, sofas, 
chairs, wardrobes, bureaus, bedsteads, stoves, 
china, Queensware, glass, etc., etc. at the 
residence, on the corner of Eighth and Jackson 
Streets, is offered at private sale without 
reserve. For^rparticulars apply on the prem- 
ises at once. 

This advertisement provides the only known contemporary listing 

of the contents of the Lincolns' home. 

One bill of sale from the Lincoln auction is extant. It 
reads: 

S. H. Melvin Bot. of A. Lincoln 



6 Chairs @ 2.00 




12.00 


1 Spring Mattress 




26.00 


1 Wardrobe 




20.00 


1 Whatnot 




10.00 


1 Stand 




1.50 


9^ Yds. Stair Carpet 


.50 


4.75 


4 Comforters @ 2.00 




_?-?93fi 



82.25 v 

The fact that the Lincolns sold many of their furnishings from 
their Springfield home before moving to Washington adds credence 
to the many stories of Lincoln furnishings descending in the fam- 
ilies of Springfield residents. Also, an examination of the 
White House records at the National Archives (Department of the 



45 



Treasury) has revealed little or no information on what furni- 
ture, if any, was moved from Springfield to the White House. 
This absence in otherwise carefully detailed lists of expenses 
suggests that little furniture was moved. The only references to 
shipping charges are for large boxes. The Lincolns did purchase 
many new furnishings while they were in the White House. These 
numerous purchases also support the supposition that few furnish- 
ings were brought from Springfield. 

PICTORIAL EVIDENCE OF FIRST FLOOR FURNISHINGS 

On March 9, 1861, three drawings of the new President's former 
home, the Lincoln family's parlors and sitting room, appeared in 
Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper . See illustrations 1 thru 
3. These sketches show the appearance of the rooms during the 
Lincolns' last winter in Springfield. Many of the details in the 
illustrations compare well with documented surviving Lincoln fur- 
nishings, such as the Vol k Bust shown in the front parlor, or the 
table from the Lincoln Memorial Collection, also shown in the 
front parlor. The wallpaper, carpeting, and draperies, however, 
are not as clearly depicted; it is supposed that the patterns 
have been simplified. 

In 1865, five stereoscope views were made of the home's interior 

37 
as it appeared during the Lincoln funeral held in Springfield. 



46 



(See illustrations 4 through 6 in Bearss, Report , LIHO.) Mr. and 
Mrs. Lucien Tilton had been renting the house since the Lincolns 
left Springfield, and most of the furnishings in the 1865 illus- 
trations belonged to them. A newspaper account at the time of 
Lincoln's funeral (see p. 38) and the large number of furnishings 
which were purchased from the Lincolns by other Springfield 
residents indicate that the Til tons purchased very little furni- 
ture from the Lincolns. Lincoln's secretary, bed, a marble-topped 
table, a whatnot, and a chamber set are the only items which the 
account specified they purchased. Both the secretary and bed ap- 
pear in the stereoscope views. 

Although these views were taken four years after the Lincolns 
left Springfield, it is possible that the wallpaper and floor 
coverings remained unchanged. (See pp. 145-150 for separate 
discussions of wallpaper and floor coverings.) The carpet pat- 
tern in the stereoscope view is very similar to the pattern shown 
in the Leslie's Illustrated 1861 sketches of the parlors. 

In the William Waud Collection at the Library of Congress, Prints 
and Photographs Division, are three drawings of the Lincoln home 

and one of the Globe Tavern also made at the time of Lincoln's 

38 
funeral. See illustrations 4 through 7. One shows the front 

and back parlors, draped in honor of the funeral; two are uniden- 



47 



tified. The placement of windows and doors, however, suggests 
that illustration 5 is the front guest bedroom or downstairs sit- 
ting room and that illustration 6 is Lincoln's bedroom. 

RECORDED FURNISHINGS - FIRST FLOOR 

In this section on recorded furnishings all information, unless 
otherwise noted, was found in the Lincoln Home Files at the Illi- 
nois State Historical Society Library. As a large body of mate- 
rial comes from this source, only when an item has been directly 
quoted is it footnoted. Most of this material has been duplicat- 
ed and is also under accession file no. 1 at the Lincoln Home 
National Historic Site, Springfield, Illinois. 

Wei 1 -documented pieces are listed first. Those with strong asso- 
ciations are listed in the section that follows. The material is 
arranged alphabetically by object. 

LINCOLN HOME FURNISHINGS WITH STRONG DOCUMENTATION 

BOOKS: 

Books Known to Have Been Owned by Abraham Lincoln : 

Lincoln Books, Oldroyd Collection, The House Where Lincoln 
Died, Washington, D. C. 

Acts and Resolutions Passed at the First Ses - 
sion of the Thirtieth Congress of the United 



48 



S tate s, printed by Ritchie and Hess, printers, 
Washington, 1848, paper bound, inscribed four 
times "A. Lincoln," catalogue no. 3303. 

The Great Indian Chief of the West or, Life 
and Adventures of Black Hawk (H. M. Rulison, 
Philadelphia, 1856), brown cloth, catalogue 
no. 3524. 



Lincoln Books at the Library of Congress, Rare Books Division : 

John G. Baldwin, Party Leaders (New York: 
D. Appleton and Co. , 1855). 

The National Portrait Gallery of Distinguished 
Americans (Philadelphia: D. Rice and A. N. Hart, 
1856) 5 vols. , I-IV, with inscription "A. Lincoln." 

Scrapbook on Law and Politics and Times (Lexing- 
ton, Kentucky: A. W. Elder, 1855), presented to 
Lincoln in 1855 by his friend George Robertson. 

Samuel Kirkham's English Grammar (Cincinnati, 1828). 



Other References to Books Owned by Abraham Lincoln : 
The following is a tentative list of works Lincoln owned before 
leaving Springfield, based on four works: David C. Mearns, Three 
Presidents an d Their Books (1955); M. L. Houser, The Books That 
Lincoln Read (1929); M. L. Houser, Lincoln's Education and Other 
Essays (1957); and Rufus Rockwell Wilson, What Lincoln Read 
(Washington, D. C. , 1932). At this time, there is no complete 
study of the books owned by Lincoln. 



Angel 1 Limitations in Equity 

Anon. Wealth and Worth 1856 



49 



Bailey, N. 
Baily, W. 
Baldwin, J. C. 

Beecher, E. 
Benton, Thomas H, 
Blanchard, R. 
Blackstone, Wm. 

Browne, C. C. 



Burke, Edmund 
Burns, Robert 
Campbel 1 , Wm. W. 



Chandler, Mary G. 
Channing, William 

El lery 
Chitty, J. 

Cook, E. 
Croker, C. 

Dalrymple, Sir J. 
Day, J. 
Dean 
Drake, B. 

Flint, Timothy 
French, J. 

Gihbon, Edward 

Gibson, Robert 

Gil man, C. 
Goldsmith, Oliver 
Goodloe, D. R. 
Greenleaf, S. 



Negro Equality (Scrapbook) 

Unity of God 

Flush Times of Alabama and 

Mississippi 
Riots at Alton 
Thirty Years' View 
Business Man's Assistant 
Commentaries on the Laws of 

England 
Aretemus Ward: His Book 
Holy Bible 
Psalms 
Essay on the Sublime and 

Beautiful 
Poetical Works 

Life and Writings of DeWitt 
Clinton (New York, 1849). 
Inscribed on title page: 
"A. Lincoln — Springfield, 
111., Nov. 19, 1860." 

Elements of Character 

Works, 3 Vols. 

Treatise on Pleading and 

Parties to Action 
Complete Poems 
Popular Songs of Ireland 

Great Britain and Ireland 
Introduction to Algebra 
Medical Jurisprudence 
Life of Black Hawk 

First White Man of the West 
The True Republican 

History of the Decline and 
Fall of the Roman Empire 
Theory and Practice of 

Surveying 
The Illinois Conveyancer 
Miscellaneous Works 
The Southern Platform 
Treatise on the Law of 
Evidence 



1818 



1858 



1856 



1839 



50 



Hal 1am, Henry View of... the Middle Ages 1837 
Halleck, Fitz- 

Greene Poetical Works 

Hickey, W. Constitution of the United 

States 
Hitchcock, E. Religious Truth Illustrated 

from Science 
Howells, W. D. 
& Hayes Life of Abraham Lincoln 1860 

Illinois Revised Laws (1829, 1841, 

1843, 1845) 
Indiana Revised Laws (1824) 

Kirkham, S. English Grammar 1828 

Knox, Rev. V. Elegant Extracts 

Lanman, C. Dictionary of the United 

States Congress 
Lincoln, A. Address at Cooper Institute 
Lincoln, A. Negro Equality (Scrapbook) 
Lincoln-Douglas Political Debates 
Livermore, G. Historical Research. . .Negroes 

as Slaves, as Citizens, and 

as Soldiers 
Lowe, A. T. The Columbian Class Book 

Mitchell, Donald G. Fudge Doings 

Neil son, W. Syntax of the Greek Language 

Olmsted, D. Introduction to Astronomy 

Paley, W. Works 

Parker, Theodore The Effect of Slavery on 

the American People 1858 

Poe, Edgar Allen Tales 
Pope, Alexander Poetical Works 1839 

Reed, A. C. Life of George Washington 

Scripp, John Locke Life of Lincoln 1860 

Shakespeare, Wm. Dramatic Works 

Sheppard, F. Constitutional Textbook 

Simpson Euclid ca. 1835 



51 



Story, Joseph Commentaries on Equity 

Jurisprudence 

Sumner Republican Party 

Thayer, W. M. The Pioneer Boy 

Webster, N. An American Dictionary 1858 

Webster, N. Dictionary for Primary Schools 1833 

Worcester, J. History, Ancient and Modern 

Young, Edward Night Thoughts 



Books Known to Have Been Owned by Mary Lincoln : 

Collection of Mary Edwards Brown 

Queens o f England (LIHO 983); Novella (Present location unknown); 
Arithmetic (Present location unknown) 

These works were acquired from Mary Edwards Brown. According to 
Mrs. Brown, they belonged to her great-aunt, Mary Todd Lincoln. 
According to the Catalogue Card No. 983, the Queens of England 
book is signed with a signature "Mary Lincoln, 1860," which does 
not match other known Mary Lincoln signatures, and there is an- 
other discrepancy in that the book's publication date is 1861. 
According to James Hickey, the Mary Lincoln signature is authen- 
tic and Mrs. Lincoln was often inconsistent on dates. She pur- 
chased four copies of this book. 

Springfield Purchases 

Two books purchased by the Lincolns in Springfield from Irwin and 
Co. on December 31, 1846, are: Eliza Leslie's Directions fo r 
Cookery in Its Various Branches (20th edition, Philadelphia, 



52 



1844) and Leslie's The House Book or A Manual of Domestic Economy 
for Town and Country (8th edition, Philadelphia, 1845). 

Oliver R. Barrett Collection 

Two books listed in the 1952 Oliver R. Barrett Auction Collection 

Catalogue are: 

Mary G. Chandler's The Elements of Character 
(Boston 1858), black cloth, inscription "Mary 
Lincoln" came from Mrs. C. Smith's attic. 

T.B. Read's The Female Poets of America (Phil- 
adelphia, 1852), full stamped leather, in- 
scribed "Mary Lincoln." 

Miscellaneous Written References to Mrs. Lincoln's Books : 

According to Rufus Wilson's What Lincoln Read , Mrs. Lincoln sub- 

39 
scribed to The Southern Literary Messenger . The Lost and Found ; 

40 
or Life Among the Poor was given to Mary Todd Lincoln in 1860. 

Emilie Todd Helm recalled that during her visit to the Lincolns 

in 1854-1855 her sister Mary was reading the poems and novels of 

41 
Sir Walter Scott. 

CHAIRS: 



Side Chairs , Set of six, mahogany, mahogany veneer and oak (LIHO 
1116, 1117, 1118, 1119, 1120, 1121) 

These chairs were acquired in 1974 from the Historical Society of 

Pennsylvania as part of a collection which once formed the Lin- 

42 
coin Memorial Collection. In 1886, S.B. Munson, Secretary of 



53 



the Lincoln Memorial Collection, began procuring artifacts for 
the purpose of a public display. The collection was on display 

at 94 Market Street in Chicago from 1887 to 1894. In 1894, the 

43 
collection was sold by the Stan V. Henkels auction house. 

Louis Clark Vanuxen and his son-in-law, William Potter, purchased 
many pieces from the collection. When Vanuxen died in 1904, one- 
half of the collection and an heir's share went to Potter. Pot- 
ter persuaded the remaining heirs to present the collection in 
1914 to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, where it remained 
until 1974. 

According to the Henkels Catalogue , lot numbers 1594 to 1599, 
listed as "Six antique mahogany chairs with tufted haircloth 
seats," as well as lots 1592, "an antique mahogany side table, 
with white marble top (marble broken)," 1593, "large French plate 
mirror, gilt frame," and 1600, "large Axminster rug," were all 
obtained from Allen Miller of Springfield who bought them from 
Lincoln at his February 1861 sale. The catalogue entry states 
that the furniture was accompanied by an affidavit of the Miller 
family attesting to its authenticity. An affidavit in the files 
was written by Mr. and Mrs. Lafayette Smith, neighbors of both 
the Millers and Lincolns, which confirms that the Millers bought 
the furnishings listed above. The description of the rug, how- 
ever, differs in the affidavit which describes it as a "plush 



54 



hearth rug." The latter description, being older, is probably 
more accurate. A line drawing in the Henkels C atalogu e depicts 
one of the chairs and the table which further identifies them. 
These chairs are also identical to four side chairs which appear 
in the 1861 Leslie's drawings of the east and west parlors. 
These six side chairs are among the best documented pieces of 
Lincoln furniture known today. 

A close examination of the chairs reveals that they are each 
marked on the top of the inside front rail with numbers. Identi- 
fying the members of a set in this way was a standard cabinetmak- 

ing practice. In this instance, the numbers range from I through 

44 
XI which suggests that there was a set of at least twelve. 

Chairs were commonly bought in sets of twelve. A signed bill of 

sale by Abraham Lincoln to Dr. Samuel H. Melvin shows that Dr. 

45 
Melvin also bought six chairs at the February 1861 sale. Dr. 

Melvin's chairs may have been the remaining members of this set. 

Rocking Chair , Caned Seat and Back (LIHO 47) 
Side Chair , Caned Seat (LIHO 28) 

The rocking chair, purported to be Mrs. Lincoln's sewing chair, 
and the side chair are two items acquired by the Lincoln Home in 
1929 from Elizabeth (Mrs. F. P.) Ide. These items were stated by 
affidavit to have belonged to Mrs. Lincoln. Their Lincoln prove- 
nance is logical; however, when objects change hands several 



55 



times, there is a greater chance of the original item being 
separated from its documentation. In this case, the artifacts 
appear to be the ones discussed in the affidavits. 

Mrs. Ide purchased these items from a Springfield antiques deal- 
er, Lucy Rhea, who collected Lincoln Home furnishings. Mrs. Rhea 
purchased the furnishings from Annie Kavanaugh, the daughter of 
Hugh Gallagher, expressman for J. Hough's cabinetmaking shop. 
Annie Kavanaugh wrote the affidavit. In her statement about the 
rocking chair dated August 21, 1926, she claimed: 

...on one occasion when Mrs. Lincoln visited 
at the home of Hugh Gallagher she identified 
this rocking chair by saying "that is the lit- 
tle rocking chair that I rocked my babies in" 
and that affiant was present and heard Mrs. 
Lincoln make this remark; that said rocking 
chair came into the possession of affiant's 
immediate family on the occasion of Mrs. Lin- 
coln refurnishing her home some years prior 
to 1861. 

The affidavit for the side chair has not been located; however a 

list of items acquired from Mrs. Ide, which includes this chair, 

states that it was accompanied by one. Also, according to this 

list, two other cane seated side chairs "of the Lincoln period" 

were acquired from Mrs. Ide because of their similarity to the 

Lincoln one. An examination of the catalogue cards shows a pair 

of chairs (LIHO 26 and 27) to be those chairs. They have been 

mistakenly catalogued, however, as also having a history of 



5 b 



Lincoln ownership. An examination of the chairs shows that they 
are not from the same set as the one with a Lincoln history (LIHO 
28). 

Furthermore, there is a possibility that chairs in the style of 
LIHO 28 were not available at the time the Lincolns lived in 
Springfield. These chairs were factory made, inexpensive, and 

very popular during the 1870s. The earliest suggested date for 

46 
this style is 1865. Although dating according to style is not 

conclusive, until further evidence becomes available, this chair 

(LIHO 28) should not be exhibited in the Lincoln Home. 

Fancy Painted Chairs (LIHO 59, 66, 77, 79, 92, 98, 1061, 1190) 
A set of eight rush seated painted fancy chairs has been returned 
to the Lincoln Home by at least four different sources, each with 
a possible history of Lincoln ownership. 

In 1958, Mrs. Elizabeth Pasfield of Springfield donated two fancy 

chairs (LIHO 59 and 66). At the time, Richard Hagen, Historical 

Consultant for the Division of Parks and Memorials, wrote Mrs. 

Pasfield saying: 

The chairs are absolutely identical to four 
other Hitchcock chairs, Catalogue Nos. 77, 79, 
92, 98, which have been in the house for some 
time;... this makes them doubly important to us 
because they help to establish the authentici- 
ty of the chairs we had previously. 



57 



Hagen's use of the word "authenticity" implies that these chairs, 
as well as the set of four previously acquired, were Lincoln 
chairs. 

The files on these chairs are incomplete. Only one letter was 
located which referred to the Pasfield gift and no information 
was found on the other four chairs. 

In 1976, two chairs (LIHO 1061 and 1062) and two couches (LIHO 
1059 and 1060) from the Oldroyd Collection at Ford's Theater were 
transferred to the Lincoln Home. The rush bottomed fancy chair 
(LIHO 1061) from this collection is identical to those chairs 
previously acquired by the Lincoln Home. 

According to Charles H. Coe's Descriptive Catalogue of the Old - 
royd Collection , the rush bottomed chair (LIHO 1061) was present- 
ed to the Oldroyd Collection by Mr. and Mrs. L. H. Coleman who 
bought it from the Lincolns in 1861. 

The chair also appears in the stereoscope view of the Oldroyd 
Collection taken in 1885. 

Although the evidence on six of these chairs is yery slim, the 
history of the Oldroyd chair appears reliable and its similarity 
to the other chairs suggests that all are from a set owned by the 
Lincolns. 



58 



An eighth chair (LIHO 1190), identical to LIHO 1061, was acquired 

by the Lincoln Home in 1983. Its history, although not complete, 

indicates that it was originally a Lincoln chair. The donor was 

Dr. Kane Zel 1 , of Glen Arbor, Michigan. His affidavit dated 

June 9, 1983 reads: 

In 1855 or 1856, Mrs. Lincoln refurnished the 
Lincoln home. At that time a number of dining 
chairs were taken from the home to the Lin- 
coln-Herndon Law Office, where they remained 
until Mr. Lincoln went to Washington as Presi- 
dent. 

My great-grandmother, Mrs. Caroline Kane, 
lived on South Second Street on or adjacent to 
the present site of the Illinois Supreme Court 
Building. She and her family were close 
friends of Lincoln's law partner, Billy Hern- 
don. 

When Lincoln went to Washington, Billy Herndon 
asked Mrs. Kane if she would like to have one 
of Mr. Lincoln's chairs. On her agreement, 
the chair, first used in the Lincoln home and 
later in the Lincoln-Herndon Law Offices, was 
given to Mrs. Kane by Billy Herndon. 

Upon Mrs. Kane's death, the chair went to 
Judge Charles Filo Kane of Springfield. Upon 
Judge Kane's death in 1918, the chair went to 
a cousin, Mr. Henry Kane Tully, of New York 
City. It remained in his possession until 
1946. At Mr. Tully's death, the chair went to 
Dr. Kane Zelle of Springfield, the great- 
grandson of Caroline Kane. The chair has been 
in the possession of Dr. Zelle since that 
date, except for a period of time when the 
chair was displayed at Hugh Garvey's Lincoln 
Museum on Eighth Street, near the Lincoln 
home. 

Rocking Chair , mahogany, upholstered in black haircloth 

This chair does not appear in the stereoscope view taken of the 



59 



Oldroyd Collection in 1885, 47 but Cog's 1896 Inventory of the 

Oldroyd Collection states: 

Rocking Chair, black haircloth, mahogany; a 
favorite with Mr. Lincoln. Sold by him in 
1861 to M»iss Lydia Rockhill, of Springfield, 
Illinois. 

Oldroyd himself (in an interview) mentions that he acquired the 

chair from "some dressmaking sisters named Rockhill who purchased 

49 
it at the Lincoln sale in 1861." 



In 1896, the Oldroyd Collection was housed in the House Where 
Lincoln Died (Petersen House) on 10th Street, Washington, D, C. 
The present location of the chair is not known, although the 
National Park Service acquired the Oldroyd Collection in the 
early 1930s. Presumably the chair was separated from the collec- 
tion between 1896 and 1930. Since Oldroyd purchased the chair 
directly from the Rockhill family, who were residents of Spring- 
field at the time of Lincoln's sale, its provenance appears reli- 
able. 

CLOCKS: 

E. Howard and Co. Wall Clock (LIHO 54) 

The Lincoln Home acquired the E. Howard and Co. Wall Clock in 
1953 from Minnie Smith Johnson, Mary Todd Lincoln's niece. 
According to Mrs. Johnson, the wall clock was given by Abraham 



60 



Lincoln to his brother-in-law, Clark M. Smith, just before his 

departure for Washington. The E. Howard Company introduced this 

50 
model of clock about 1857. It is illustrated in their 1874 

catalogue (reprinted in 1972 by The American Clock and Watch 

51 
Museum). The clock was intended to supply jewelers, railroad 

stations, dispatcher's offices, and other areas needing a large, 

durable and reliable clock. 



Although the history of this clock indicates it was owned at one 
time by Lincoln, it is not a very plausible item for him to have 
placed in his home. A clock such as the Kegwin and Alsop one, or 
a French clock, would be more in keeping with the taste displayed 
by the Lincolns' other furnishings. The possibility that Lincoln 
purchased this clock for his office or that it was a presidential 
gift is a more likely explanation for Lincoln's ownership of this 
large regulator clock. The fact that he gave the clock to his 
brother-in-law, who owned a store, suggests he may have had the 
store in mind as a possible location for the clock, when he made 
the gift. 

Kegwin and Alsop Clock (Present location unknown) 

The Historical Society's catalogue record on this clock indicates 

it contains a paper label identifying the clock as one manufac- 



61 



tured by Kegwin and Alsop of Springfield who were in business 
during Lincoln's residence there. 

According to the Lincoln Home Files, at the Illinois State His- 
torical Society Library, the clock was returned to the Lincoln 
Home by gift of Mr. H.D. Holt of Dunedin, Florida. He had ac- 
quired it from Emily Jackman Dawson, along with an affidavit (a 
copy of which is now in the Lincoln Home Files at the Illinois 
State Historical Society Library) signed by her October 19, 1960, 
giving the Dawson family history of the clock: 

...That my husband [Walter Lincoln Dawson] 
always stated that the above mentioned clock 
was purchased by his father [Charles Dawson] 
at an auction in which some of Mr. Lincoln's 
household possessions were sold when he moved 
from Springfield to the White House. 

The identification of the clock as a Springfield make manufac- 
tured between 1840 and 1860, and Dawson's position as both a San- 
gamon County resident and client of Lincoln's tends to confirm 
the family history that Dawson purchased it at the Lincoln 1861 
sale. 

HALL STAND: 

Hall Stand (LIHO 51) 

A combination hat and umbrella stand was presented to the Lincoln 

Home in 1950 by Mrs. Bert Wheeler, the grandaughter of Dr. Newton 



62 



Bateman, a friend of Lincoln's and State Superintendent of Public 

Instruction 1859-1862 and 1864-1874. According to the Bateman 

family tradition, Lincoln offered this friend his choice of the 

furniture before the 1861 sale. Bateman selected the hall stand 

and there is some evidence that Bateman also chose a hall chair 

which accompanied the stand. An article in Lincoln Lore (No. 

1318, July 12, 1954) on "Chairs used by the Lincolns" listed the 

following item: 

Bateman -- Springfield Hall Chair: Newton 
Bateman purchased from Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln a 
hat tree and hall chair. The hat tree was 
returned to its former location in the Lincoln 
Home at Springfield but the tall attract ;Ue 
hall chair apparently did not accompany it. 

LIGHTING DEVICES: 

The Lincolns' purchases in Springfield indicate that they used 
both candles and lamps. On April 16, 1844, Mrs. Lincoln pur- 
chased two lamps from Irwin & Co. for $1.50 and on November 29, 
1849, the Lincolns purchased a wall lamp from J. Bunn & Co. A 

wall lamp appears in one of the Waud drawings, ca. 1865 (See il- 

53 
lustration No. 5). It is not clear from the drawing which room 

is illustrated. The placement of doors and windows indicates the 

room shown may be either the south front bedroom or the sitting 

room. 



63 



54 
Girandoles 

The Leslie's Illustrated drawings of the double parlor and sit- 
ting room show girandole sets on every mantelpiece and do not in- 
dicate any other lighting devices in those rooms. The Lincolns, 
however, did purchase several lamps as mentioned above. The 
available accounts of the Lincoln family purchases at local 
Springfield stores show that for the winter and spring of 1859 
the Lincolns purchased an average of four pounds of candles per 
month. (See pp. 114-118 for a listing of the Lincolns' numerous 
candle purchases.) These purchases indicate a regular usage of 
candlelight in the Lincoln home. 

Two sets of girandoles, one of which is now at the Lincoln Home, 
have a history of Lincoln ownership. 

Girandoles , (LIHO 150-152), a set consisting of two single-arm 
candleholders and one three-stick candleholder 

Stylistically, these girandoles are appropriate for the period 

and they are very similar to those on the mantel in the Lesl ie's 

II lustrated drawing of the Lincolns' front parlor. The provenance 

of these girandoles indicates that they were originally owned by 

the Lincolns. 

They were given by Mr. and Mrs. John Herndon of Springfield to 
the Lincoln home in 1964. According to the Herndon family, the 



64 



girandoles had been given by Mrs. Lincoln as a farewell gift to 
Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Smith before the Lincolns left for Washing- 
ton. The girandoles became part of an inheritance Mrs. Kate 
Herndon received from Nettie Smith, daughter of the Stephen 
Smiths. John Herndon then inherited them from his mother, Mrs. 
Kate Herndon. A newspaper article in a 1927 Bloomington Panto - 
graph pictures the girandoles and outlines this history. John 

Herndon signed an affidavit dated March 8, 1965, also recounting 

55 
the history. 

Mary Edwards Brown, grandniece of Mary Todd Lincoln, signed an 

affidavit on May 2, 1925, which outlined the history of another 

girandole set. She stated: 

....when preparing to leave Springfield for 
Washington, Mr. Lincoln presented them [giran- 
doles] to Mrs. Mary Black Remann, a friend and 
neighbor of the Lincoln family. That upon the 
death of Mary Black Remann, they came into the 
possession of her daughter, Miss Mary Julia 
Remann, and, upon her death, into the posses- 
sion of the affiant, Mary Edwards Brown [niece 
of Mary Julia Remann]. 

The provenance appears reliable; however, the location of this 

girandole set is unknown. 

MIRRORS: 

Mirror (LIHO 1115) 

This mirror was one of nine items purchased by Mr. Allen Miller 

of Springfield from the Lincolns at their 1861 sale. These fur- 



65 



nishings were accompanied by an affidavit dated April 10, 1886, 
written by Mr. and Mrs. Lafayette Smith, also Springfield re- 
sidents who verified the Miller history of these items. (See pp. 
53-55, 72-73, 138 for discussion of other Miller furnishings.) 
The mirror then became one of the Lincoln artifacts acquired by 
the "Lincoln Memorial Collection" in 1886. In the 1894 Henkels 
auction catalogue of the Lincoln Memorial Collection, the mirror 
was described as a "Large French-plate mirror, gilt frame." This 
mirror was later donated to the Historical Society of Pennsyl- 
vania (1914) and purchased by the National Park Service for the 
Lincoln Home in 1974. This mirror appears to be the one shown in 
the 1861 Leslie's Illustrated drawing of the Lincolns 1 sitting 
room, above a two-drawer sewing table. 

SECRETARY-DESKS: 

Secretary-Desk (Location unknown) 

The available evidence, outlined below, indicates the original 
Lincoln home secretary was one of the furnishings purchased by 
the Til tons, the family who rented the Lincoln home after the 
Lincolns moved to Washington. An account written at the time of 
Lincoln's funeral in Springfield mentions the secretary in the 
back parlor as one of the few original Lincoln pieces left in the 



66 



house. (See p. 38 for full account.) It is also illustrated in 
a stereoscope view of the Til ton parlor taken at the time of the 
funeral . 



A comparison of the secretary that appears in the Tilton stereo- 
scope view with the one in the Leslie's Illustrated drawings 
(with some allowance for artistic license in the latter) indi- 
cates they are the same piece of furniture. Both the drawing and 
the stereoscope view show a large piece of furniture, with a deep 
desk top and curved side supports on the base. The location of 
this secretary is unknown; however, the Til tons moved to Chicago 
from Springfield and their belongings are believed to have been 
destroyed in the Chicago Fire. 

SEWING BASKETS: 

Sewing Basket (LIHO 278) 

Information found on the catalogue card states that the basket 
belonged to Mrs. Lincoln. The provenance was not included on the 
card. However, an affidavit found in Accession File No. 1, 
signed on May 2, 1925, by Mary Edwards Brown [who was the grand- 
daughter of Elizabeth Todd (Mrs. Ninian Edwards), Mary Lincoln's 
sister] lists a sewing basket. It is Item No. 6 of 26 items she 
lists and the entry reads "work basket of Mrs. Abraham Lincoln." 



67 



LIHO 278 is very likely the basket which Mrs. Edwards mentions. 
Several items from Mrs. Edwards' list are now located at the Lin- 
coln Home (the sewing basket and a few pieces of furniture). 
Other identifiable items on the list, such as the tablecloth used 
at the Lincolns' wedding, were acquired by the State. (See Ap- 
pendix II for complete list.) The Illinois State Historical 
Society Library also has two sewing baskets with a history of 
ownership by Mary Lincoln. 

SOFAS: 

Pictorial and written evidence show that the Lincolns had at 
least two sofas in their home at the time of Mr. Lincoln's elec- 
tion. 

Two sofas appear in the 1861 Leslie's Illustrated drawings of the 
Lincoln parlors, and one of the newspaper's correspondents who 
visited the Lincoln home in 1860 recorded that he sat on a sofa 
in the parlor while talking with Mr. Lincoln. (See p. 35 for a 
full account.) One of the Lincoln sofas was new a few months 
before the Lincolns moved to Washington, according to a letter 

written by Mrs. Lincoln, who expressed concern about the storage 

57 
of belongings they left behind. 

Four sofas and one lounge have a history of being associated with 
the Lincoln home. While it is possible that all of these sofas 



68 



were owned by the Lincolns (assuming they bought new ones and 
discarded old ones over the years), it is unlikely they would 
have gone through so many. The best documented sofa is in the 
Chicago Historical Society. Affidavits, beginning with the pur- 
chaser who attended the 1861 Lincoln sale, trace it to the Gun- 
ther Collection and the Chicago Historical Society. (See pp. 71, 
85-86, 87, 91-92, 98, 105 for discussions of Lincoln furniture, 
including this sofa, at the Chicago Historical Society.) 

Sofas (LIHO 1059, 1060) 

The following entries from Charles Coe's 1896 Descriptive Cat - 
alogue of the Oldroyd Lincoln Memorial Collection briefly present 
the provenance of two sofas from the Oldroyd Collection, now at 
the Lincoln Home. One of the sofas (LIHO 1059) was described: 

No. 2. Sofa, black haircloth mahogany; 6 ft. 
9 in. long, scroll ends. This was the first 
sofa owned by the Lincoln family, and was 
purchased by Mr. Lincoln when he commenced 
housekeeping in Springfield, Illinois in 1844. 
When he broke up housekeeping, previous to his 
departure for Washington in 1861, it was sold 
to Miss Lydia Rockhill, of Springfield. 

It also appeared in the 1885 stereoscope view of Oldroyd's Col- 
lection. This sofa was catalogue no. 4495 of the Ford's Theatre 
Collection (purchased as part of the Oldroyd Collection in 1926) 
before its transfer in 1977 to Lincoln's Springfield home. 



69 



Sofa (LIHO 1060) described in 1896 by Coe: 

No. 3. Sofa, black haircloth, solid rosewood; 
5 ft. 3 in. long; a more modern pattern than 
the preceding, regarded by the family as a 
choice parlor piece. Sold by Mr. Lincoln in 
1861 to the father rgf Richard S. Burch, 
Springfield, Illinois. 

This sofa was catalogue no. 4496 in the Ford's Theatre Collec- 
tion. 

Lydia Rockhill and Burch were both Springfield residents contem- 
porary with the Lincolns. According to a letter written by Mary 
Lincoln (May 29, 1862), the Lincolns left some of their belong- 
ings, including a sofa, with William S. Burch, father of Richard 
Burch. Mrs. Lincoln wrote, "I see by the papers that Mr. Burch 
[William S. Burch] is married — we have some pieces of furniture 

still remaining at his house.... The sofa, at Mr. Burch's was new, 

fin 
a few months before we left...." Mrs. Lincoln's description of 

the sofa as "new" would correspond with the one from the Oldroyd 
Collection. It is in the rococo revival style, the newest fash- 
ion for the 1850s and 1860s. Mr. Burch's marriage may have been 
the occasion for his purchase of this sofa. 

Both Oldroyd sofas have fairly strong histories of Lincoln owner- 
ship; however, neither resembles the sofas illustrated in Les - 
lie's 1861 drawings of the parlors. Several explanations may 
account for this. The north wall of the sitting room was not 



70 



pictured and a sofa may have been against that wall. There is 
also the possibility that the Presidential candidate was given a 
sofa as a gift, and the sofa was never used. 

Sofa , mahogany, serpentine, arched top rail with a fan shaped de- 
sign in center (Chicago Historical Society, Accession No. 1920. 
246) 

This sofa, covered in "mohair cloth," was bought at the Lincoln 
1861 sale by J. M. Forden, a neighbor of Lincoln's. In 1887, it 
was sold by J. M. Forden to George W. Forden, who, in 1888, sold 
it to Charles F. Gunther. Affidavits signed by both Fordens ac- 
companied the sofa. This sofa is one of the best documented 
pieces of furniture from the Lincoln Home. Its similarity to the 
sofa illustrated in the Lesl ie's drawing of the back parlor sug- 
gests that the sofa was in this room before the Lincoln sale. 
(See Appendix I for a copy of the affidavit, and Plate VIII.) 

fii 
Lounge , single arm, with turned legs (LIHO 13) 

This sofa was acquired from Julius Kuecher in 1953. Kuecher 

stated in a notarized affidavit that he inherited it from his 

father, John B. Kuecher, a Springfield resident and contemporary 

of Lincoln's. The family tradition about the sofa as described 

by Julius Kuecher (and also mentioned later in another affidavit 

by his nephew, Robert Watson Kuecher, see Appendix IV) is that 

Lincoln gave the sofa to Kuecher in 1861 before his departure for 



71 



Washington. The Kuecher provenance appears reliable, for the sofa 
descended directly in the Kuecher family from father to son. 

A note on the catalogue card states that this sofa was specially 
made for Lincoln; the source of this note is not mentioned how- 
ever, and there are no unusual features about the sofa to suggest 
it was specially made. Sofas of this style and description were 
made between 1840 and 1875 by furniture factories. Standard 
sizes ranged from six feet to six feet six inches long. The 
Kuecher sofa measures six feet seven inches (according to the 
catalogue card). It is the largest of the standard sizes. One 
inch is not a significant enough difference to confirm that the 
sofa was specially made. 

TABLES: 

Side Table (LIHO 1114) 

Two tables with a strong claim to LIHO provenance were returned 
to the home from the "Lincoln Memorial Collection" (see p. 53 for 
history of the Lincoln Memorial Collection). The 1894 Henkels 
catalogue of the sale of the Lincoln Memorial Collection provides 
the earliest identification of these tables. The catalogue de- 
scribed the tables and summarized their history. The first table 
listed, Number 1592 (LIHO 1114), was described as "An Antique Ma- 
hogany Side Table with white marble top (Marble broken)." ' The 



72 



same table was pictured with the caption "Antique Mahogany Table 
from Lincoln's Parlor." The Lincoln Memorial Collection acquired 
the table and several other furnishings (see pp. 53-54, 65-66, 
and 138) from Allen Miller, a Springfield neighbor of the Lin- 
colns. According to an affidavit written by other neighbors, Mr. 
and Mrs. Lafayette Smith (April 10, 1886), the Millers purchased 
these items at the Lincolns' 1861 sale. 

The Henkels catalogue also recounted the following story told by 

the Miller family about the table (Henkels Number 1592 - LIHO 

1114): 

As Mr. Miller was about to take them from the 
Lincoln residence, Mr. Lincoln requested that 
the table and one of the chairs remain, as he 
had some very important writing that he must 
attend to before leaving Springfield. Conse- 
quently, the very last writing that Mr. Lin- 
coln did before leaving Illinois was upon this 
identical table and seated in one of these 
chairs. 

The Miller history is supported by the fact that this table is 
very similar to the one shown in the Leslie's Illustrated drawing 
of the front parlor (see illustration No. 1). 

Work Table (LIHO 1123) 

Table No. 1603, an "Antique Mahogany work table, with pedestal 
base and two drawers," came from J. M. Forden, a Springfield 
resident who acquired them at the Lincolns' 1861 sale. According 



73 



Co 

to the accompanying affidavit, the table was purchased by 
Forden, and remained in Forden's possession until 1887 when it 
was acquired by the Lincoln Memorial Collection. 

Forden signed the affidavit as did several others who attested to 
his truthfulness. The work table went on to become a part of the 
Lincoln Collection owned by the Historical Society of Pennsylva- 
nia (see p. 54), and is now in the Collection of the Lincoln Home 
(LIHO 1123). This table, with its tapered pedestal and bracket 
feet, closely resembles the one pictured in the Leslie's Illus - 
trated drawing of the Lincolns' sitting room. The resemblance 
confirms the Forden history. 

Walnut Tete-a-Tete Table and Walnut Table (Washstand) 
Two other tables were listed in the 1894 Henkels sale catalogue 
but their locations are now unknown. No. 1604 was listed as an 
"antique walnut tete-a-tete table," also owned by J. M. Forden. 
No. 1605 was listed in Henkels catalogue as a "walnut table, from 
the bedroom of Abraham Lincoln," evidently used as a washstand. 
This table was purchased by E. Figueri from Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln 
in 1861. See pp. 129-131 for discussion of lot 1602, a mahogany 
bureau from the same source. 

Card Table (LIHO 29) 

This table has a strong Lincoln provenance because it was ac- 



74 



quired by the Lincoln Home from the granddaughter of Mary Lin- 
coln's sister, Frances Jane Todd (wife of Dr. William S. Wal- 
lace). Frances Todd Wallace Bulkley made the following statement 
about the table, June 24, 1965: 

After my grandmother's death (Frances Wal- 
lace), August 14, 1899, my father received a 
shipment of personal belongings which had been 
in my grandmother's home in Springfield. My 
older sister, Elsie Lincoln Wallace, (now de- 
ceased), was given several pieces. I was 
told, since I was her namesake, the card table 
(pictures enclosed) belonged to me, together 
with a miniature portrait painted on ivory of 
my grandmother. The portrait depicts her 
holding her first child, Elizabeth, who died 
in infancy. I was also told the table was 
given to my grandmother by her sister Mary 
when the Lincolns moved to Washington. In our 
home, it was always referred to as the "Lin- 
coln" table. 

The card table was a fairly common furniture form often used in 

the hall or sitting room as a side table and occasionally for the 

same purpose in the dining room. Its presence in a home did not 

necessarily indicate that the family owning it played cards. 

Drop-Leaf Table (LIHO 25) 

The drop-leaf walnut dining room table was acquired for the 
Lincoln Home from Mrs. F. P. Ide. (See pp. 55-57 and 93 for 
discussions of other items acquired through Mrs. Ide.) Mrs. Ide 
purchased the table from a Springfield antiques dealer, Lucy 
Rhea, who, in turn, had bought it from Annie Kavanaugh. Mrs. 



75 



Kavanaugh inherited the table from her father, Hugh Gallagher, a 

Springfield resident from 1855 until his death in 1897. In an 

affidavit written August 21, 1926, at the time of Mrs. Ide's 

purchase, Mrs. Kavanaugh explained the Gallagher family tradition 

about the table. The following excerpts from the affidavit 

outline this history of the table: 

...the said Hugh Gal lagher. . .from the year 
1855 to 1865 was associated with Jack Hough, 
the leading furniture dealer of Springfield, 
Illinois during that period. Affiant further 
says that the family of Abraham Lincoln bought 
much furniture for use in their home on the 
northeast corner of Eighth & Jackson Streets 
in Springfield, Illinois from the said Jack 
Hough and that many of the articles of fur- 
niture replaced by the said furniture so pur- 
chased was sold or given by Mrs. Lincoln to 
the said Hugh Gallagher and remained in his 
possession until his death. Affiant further 
says that the drop-leaf, waxed, walnut table 
purchased in August 1924 by Mrs. Francis P. 
[sic] Ide from Mrs. Lucy Rhea was purchased by 
the said Mrs. Rhea from me;... it came into the 
possession of my immediate family on the oc- 
casion of Mrs. Abraham Lincoln refurnishing 
her home... some years prior to 1861; that she 
then bought new furniture for her dining room; 
that the said drop-leaf, waxed, walnut table 
. . .had. . .been used for a number of years in 
the Lincoln home as her dining room table.... 

Sewing Table (LIHO 46) 

This two-drawer pedestal table was given to the Lincoln Home in 
1956 by the family of Mrs. Harrison Blankmeyer. According to a 
statement by Mrs. Blankmeyer, the table was originally owned by 



^6 



Lincoln. Lincoln gave the table to Benjamin Burch in return for 
Burch's assistance in crating furniture before the Lincolns' 
departure for Washington. The table descended in the Burch 
family to Benjamin's granddaughter, Mrs. Eunice Moorehead. Mrs. 
Moorehead then gave the table to Dr. Harrison Blankmeyer in 
return for professional services. A letter dated February 12, 
1926, from Mrs. Moorehead in the Lincoln Home Files, at the 
Illinois State Historical Society Library, confirms Mrs. Blank- 
meyer' s story. 

Stylistically, the Blankmeyer table closely resembles the sewing 
table mentioned above from the Lincoln Memorial Collection and 
the one pictured in the Leslie's Illustrated drawing. Because 
the Lincoln Memorial Collection table has a stronger history of 
ownership (it went directly from the original purchaser into the 
Lincoln Memorial Collection with an affidavit), the Lincoln 
Memorial Collection table (LIHO 1123) should be placed on display 
in the sitting room, and the Blankmeyer table used as a side ta- 
ble on the second floor. 

ARCHEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE: 

A wide range of mid-to-late nineteenth century artifacts were 

64 
excavated from old privy pits at the Lincoln Home. The records 

that document these excavations have been transferred from the 



77 



State to the Lincoln Home, but the records do not distinguish 
among artifacts according to period of manufacture and use. Some 
of the ceramic shards, however, are identifiable and it is possi- 
ble to say which ceramics and glass could date from the Lincoln 
period. 

Transfer printed Staffordshire, creamware, and blue-edged iron- 
stone could be examples of Lincoln household ware. Plain white 
ironstone--some with decoration in relief, one dish cover with an 
acorn knob handle, some marked by Bridgewood and Clarke of Bur- 
slem--also was found. The large number of plain white ironstone 
shards, including pieces of plates, covered dishes, cups, and 
chamber sets, indicates the presence of at least one set of iron- 
stone. 

The luster tea leaf pattern of ironstone now on display in the 
Lincoln Home has been said mistakenly to be a pattern owned by 
the Lincolns. The pattern dates from about 1880 and reached a 
height of popularity around 1890. The justification for the 
acquisition of this china appears from the available records to 

be based on a tea leaf pattern soap dish (LIHO 335) thought to 

65 
have been Lincoln's. This soap dish is stamped underneath: 

"Royal Ironstone/Alfred Meakin/England. " The Alfred Meakin pot- 
teries were not founded until 1873, and this particular mark was 
used by the company in the 1890s. 



78 



Parts of pressed glass goblets (hexagonal and octagonal fluted) 
and tumblers (hexagonal fluted) were in the privy excavations 
(see LIHO Ace. No. 23, list by Ruthanne Heriot). Most table 
glassware owned by middle-class families in America at this time 
was pressed glass. 

Five Intact Bottles (LIHO 301-305) of the type in use at mid- 
century for medicine, castor oil, blacking, etc., were also found 
in the privy. (See purchase records of the Lincoln family, pp. 
98-100, 112-119, 142-144 for examples of bottled items the Lin- 
col ns bought.) 

Wooden Tooth Brush ; Two Broken Combs; Three Brush Handles ; 
Curved Top of an Alabaster Pin Box; TortoisepShel 1 Pin; Six 
Amber Glass Marbles; Four All-Slate Pencils 

These items were found during the archeological investigations 

and are of an appropriate date to have belonged to the Lincolns. 

FURNISHINGS ASSOCIATED WITH LINCOLN BUT NOT WELL DOCUMENTED 

CHAIRS: 

Plank Bottom Wooden Side Chairs : Two, one in the Lincoln Home 
Collection (LIHO 1062) and the other in the Oldroyd Collection 

LIHO 1062 was transferred to the Lincoln Home from Ford's Theater. 

One chair, a painted, plank bottomed side chair, with flowers on 

the top rail and back splat, is said to have been used in the 



79 



Lincoln dining room. The second, a matching plank bottom chair, 
remained in the Oldroyd Collection (location unknown in 1980). 
Coe's 1896 D escriptive Catalogue of the Oldroyd Collection de- 
scribed them as "No. 9. Chair, common wooden, used by the family 
in the dining-room, Lincoln homestead." "No. 10, chair, same as 
the preceding." No other documentation has yet been found, and 
Coe gives no information as to how Oldroyd acquired the chairs or 
from whom. Although these chairs may be Lincoln associated 
chairs, the evidence to support that claim is very slim and, 
therefore, they should be listed only tentatively with those 
items having a much stronger provenance. 

Rocking Chair , Upholstered in Black Horsehair (LIHO 38) 
This chair should not be listed with the original Lincoln home 
items; however, it has a Lincoln association. According to the 
Pickarel family of Springfield, this chair was "Lincoln's favor- 
ite" when he visited them. The chair was donated to the Home by 
a Pickarel grandson, George Pasfield. 

Rocking Chair , ladder back with splint weave seat (LIHO 126) 
Rocking Chair , upholstered in black horsehair (LIHO 94) 

The ladder back rocking chair was acquired for the Lincoln Home 

by the National Society of Colonial Dames of America through the 

antiques dealer Lucy Rhea. The upholstered rocking chair was 

also acquired from Mrs. Rhea. According to information found in 



SO 



the files, the catalogue card for the ladder back chair and a 
letter and statement from Mrs. Rhea concerning the upholstered 
rocker, both pieces of furniture had accompanying affidavits at- 
testing to their authenticity. These affidavits have not been 
found. Both chairs supposedly belonged to the Lincolns and the 
ladder back in particular to Mrs. Lincoln. Without the affida- 
vits, this association cannot be confirmed. 

Rocking Chair , caned seat and caned panel on back with four turn- 
ed spindles and curved crest rail above panel (possibly cherry) 
ca. 1840-1860. Located at Tuskegee, Alabama, in Booker T. Wash- 
ington's study at The Oaks 

This chair was given to Tuskegee Institute (TUIN #24) with a 
history of having been owned by Lincoln. No records have as yet 
been located to substantiate this claim. The chair, however, is 
identical to the pair shown in Frank Leslie's Illustrated News- 
paper (March 9, 1861) drawing of the Lincolns' sitting room and 
no other chairs of a similar design have yet been found with a 
Lincoln history of ownership. It is of an appropriate style and 
date to have come from Illinois at that time. It has been refin- 
ished and one piece of wood on the seat has been replaced. 

Rocking Chair (LIHO 56) 

The files on this chair appear to be incomplete. It was acquired 
by the State from Mrs. Chester Dudley Tripp. The chair came with 
a history of having belonged to Mr. Lincoln. No affidavit is 



mentioned on the catalogue card and no correspondence relating to 
this chair has been located. There is not enough information on 
this chair to confirm the Lincoln association. 

Rocking Chair (LI HO 64) 

The files on this chair are incomplete. The State purchased the 
chair in 1956 from Mrs. Charity Coe Wood. The tradition which 
accompanied the chair is that it belonged to Mr. Lincoln. No 
affidavits or correspondence have been located in the files. 
There is currently not enough information available to determine 
Lincoln authenticity. 

Side Chair , balloon back (LIHO 787) 

This chair was donated to the Lincoln Home in 1973 by the Estate 

of Myrtle Burke. In 1970, Mrs. Burke wrote to the Department of 

Conservation to offer the chair and at that time outlined its 

history. She stated: 

Many years ago, I purchased from a dealer in 
Jacksonville, Illinois, whose name as I recall 
was Caldwell, a chair that had been in Mr. 
Lincoln's home in Springfield when he left 
there to go to Washington to become President 



This chair has been in my possession for a 
great many years (close to 45 or 50) and was 
purchased by me from a young man who dealt in 
antiques and he had acquired it from Mrs. 
Lincoln's nieces, to whom Mrs. Lincoln had 
left the house and contents upon her death. 
In my childhood these nieces had an exchange 
or gift shop. . . . 



82 



Mrs. Burke's account is questionable for several reasons. No 
balloon back side chairs appear in the Leslie's Illustrated 
drawings. The side chairs which do appear are of an earlier 
style, the late Empire. Mrs. Lincoln did not leave the house and 
contents to her nieces. After Mr. Lincoln's death, she quit- 
claimed her rights to the house in favor of her sons. The major- 
ity of the Lincoln furnishings were sold before the Lincolns' re- 
moval to Washington. Only a few pieces of furniture purchased by 
the Tiltons remained in the house and these furnishings appear to 
have been destroyed in the Chicago fire. 

Mrs. Lincoln, however, did give away specific items to her family 
and it is possible such a chair was given to a niece. Unfortun- 
ately, Mrs. Burke was not able to provide further details and the 
evidence is not sufficient to support the claim that the chair 
came from the Lincoln Home. 

Side Chair , balloon back (LIHO 260) 

This side chair does not have a Lincoln home association. It was 
owned in Springfield by Mrs. Lincoln's sister and for this reason 
has been mentioned in this plan. It was donated to the Lincoln 
Home by Mrs. T. F. Mahoney (Olivia Reid Mahoney) . The chair 
supposedly came from the home of Mrs. Lincoln's sister, Mrs. 
Ninian Edwards. 



83 



Si de Chairs , Pair, Hitchcock style, stencilled gold lines 
TLIHO 31 and 32) 

These chairs were acquired from Mrs. Hugh Morrison who believed 

they were originally in the Lincoln and Logan law office. It is 

possible, however, that they were originally in the Lincoln Home. 

As the Lincolns purchased new furniture, it is possible that old 

furniture was taken to Lincoln's law office. No affidavits or 

correspondence were found in the files. These chairs appear to 

be two of four Hitchcock chairs Mr. Hagen refers to as Lincoln 

chairs. 

Chairs with Lincoln Association in Other Collections : 
Greenfield Village and Henry Ford Museum 

The Ford Museum has a collection of furnishings acquired by Henry 
Ford in 1930 from Ben and Dick Wilton, descendents of Harry 
Wilton, U. S. Marshal of the Southern District of Illinois. 
In his capacity as a U. S. Marshal, Mr. Wilton would have known 
Mr. Lincoln, the lawyer. In fact, among the documents listed in 
Henkels' sale catalogue (1894) from the Lincoln Memorial Collec- 
tion is a note written by Abraham Lincoln of an order obtained by 
Wilton for the Southern District dated June 17, 1843, made in the 
case of Walter R. Bush vs. Robert Allen. 

According to the Ford Museum, the furniture in their collection 
from the Wiltons includes a mahogany empire card table with 



84 



acanthus carving on the lyre pedestal, a shelf clock by John 
Birge, Bristol, Connecticut, six cane seated side chairs and six 
late empire mahogany side chairs with acanthus carved front legs, 
decorative carving on the splat and top rail, and hair cloth 
seats. 

According to an article on Lincoln chairs in Lincoln Lore (No. 
1318, July 12, 1954), there were also two rocking chairs in this 
collection as well as six other unidentified pieces of furniture. 
There is no supporting documentation (such as affidavits or bills 
of sale) for this furniture and without additional evidence, this 
collection cannot be authenticated as having come from the Lin- 
coln home. 

Chicago Historical Society-Lincoln Home Furnishings 
The Chicago Historical Society has a large collection of fur- 
nishings, more than half of which are chairs which have a history 
of coming from the Lincoln home in Springfield. Unfortunately, 
little of this furniture is well documented. The following is a 
list of those items (not already mentioned in the section on 

wel 1 -documented furnishings) with their accession numbers and 

69 
provenance, if known: (Also, see illustrations 8 and 9.) 

Chair , small, painted brown, XA-2260, Charles F. Gunther Collec- 
tion. The Gunther Collection was acquired by the Historical 
Society in 1920, and was not well documented. 



85 



Chairs , pair, slat backed, pine with black stain, XA-2257. 
Charles F. Gunther Collection. These chairs were reportedly from 
the Lincoln home kitchen, but were not well documented. 

Chairs , four, side, rosewood with heart shaped back, Ace. No. 
1920.242 a-d, Charles F. Gunther Collection. In addition to the 
absence of documentation, these chairs do not resemble any in the 
March 9, 1861, Leslie's drawings of the parlors or sitting room. 
Chair , rocking, mahogany, Ace. No. 1920.243, Charles F. Gunther 
Collection. No documentation. 

FOOTSTOOLS: 

The Leslie's Illustrated drawing of the Lincolns' front parlor 
shows two upholstered footstools. One, supposedly original, foot- 
stool is now at the Lincoln Home; however, unlike those which ap- 
pear in the drawing, it is caned rather than upholstered. 

Caned Footstool (LIHO 48) 

According to the catalogue card, this footstool has a history of 
belonging to Mrs. Lincoln. No provenance was mentioned on the 
card. A letter located in Accession File No. 1, dated August 19, 
1960, however, states that a footstool belonging to Mrs. Lincoln 
was donated by Emily C. Paschal along with a "furniture doily." 
At that time, Richard Hagen, Historical Consultant, wrote to 



86 



thank Mrs. Paschal. A caned sewing chair (LIHO 47), with which 
this footstool would be appropriate, also has a history of belong- 
ing to Mrs. Lincoln. Without further information, however, the 
footstool cannot be authenticated as an original Lincoln item. 

LAMPS: 

Lamp, Coal Oil (Present location unknown) 

A note in the Lincoln Home files, Illinois State Historical Soci- 
ety Library, outlines the history of a coal oil lamp supposedly 
owned by the Lincoln family. According to an affidavit (not 
found in the files but mentioned in the note) signed by Mrs. 
Ellen McCarthy Kent, Mrs. Cornelius McCarthy, Mrs. Kent's mother, 
purchased the lamp at the Lincolns' 1861 sale. It was the McCar- 
thy family's first lamp. Mrs. Kent inherited the lamp and pre- 
sented it to Bess Giblin Earseman. Cornelius McCarthy was living 
in Springfield at the time of the sale and could have attended 
it. In the 1860-1861 Springfield City Directory, he is listed as 
a laborer living west of Rutledge and First Streets, north of 
Miller. The McCarthy family history seems reliable; however, the 
location of the lamp is currently unknown. 

MIRRORS: 

Mirror (Chicago Historical Society) Accession No. 1960.100 

This mirror is said to have been purchased from the Lincolns by 

Colonel George H. Harlow in 1869 and hung in the Lincoln Home 



87 



when George Harlow (Secretary of State of Illinois, 1873-1881) 
rented the Lincoln home in that same year. George Harlow's 
daughter, Georgia Harlow Whitacre, signed an affidavit, April 18, 
1933, stating the above family history and that the mirror was 
purchased from her by Mrs. Jacob Baur. In 1958, Mrs. Whitacre' s 
sister, Susan Harlow, signed another affidavit confirming the 
above story. Mrs. Baur gave the mirror to the Chicago Historical 
Society in 1960. 

The provenance does not account for the mirror from the time the 
Lincolns moved out of the house in 1861 (and sold most of their 
belongings) until 1869 when the Harlow family moved into the 
house. Without further information, this mirror cannot be con- 
firmed as an original Lincoln Home piece of furniture. 

MUSIC BOXES: 

Music Box (Illinois State Historical Society Collection) 
A mid-nineteenth-century music box descended in the family of 
Frances Todd Wallace, Mary Todd Lincoln's sister. According to 
Mrs. Wellace's granddaughter, Frances W. Patteson, her mother, 
Mrs. Patteson was given the music box by her Aunt Mary Lincoln. 
Copies of correspondence relating to this artifact are found in 
LIHO furnishing files. There is no evidence to indicate that 
this music box was located in the Lincolns' Springfield home. 



88 



PEDESTAL STANDS: 

Pedestal Stand (LIHO 1098) 

This stand was transferred from the Lincoln Museum Collection at 
Ford's Theatre. According to their records (where it was cata- 
logue no. 3202), the stand was one of the furnishings Oldroyd 
acquired from Miss Lydia Rockhill, a Springfield milliner and 
dressmaker, who had purchased these items at the Lincolns' 1861 
sale. See pp. 59-60 and 69 for discussions of other artifacts 
purchased by Miss Rockhill. 

The major points of this history can be verified. Miss Rockhill 
is listed in the Springfield 1860-1861 Directory, and the stand 
is mentioned in the 1896 inventory of the Oldroyd Collection. 
The available evidence, however, indicates this oak stand is not 
the one Oldroyd purchased from Miss Rockhill. 

According to the Oldroyd 1896 inventory, the Rockhill stand was 
of black walnut. In addition to this discrepancy, the oak stand 
dates stylistically from the late nineteenth century. Oak pedes- 
tal stands with applied decoration were popular household items 
between 1890 and 1910. It is yery unlikely that this stand was 
made before 1890 and, therefore, it could not have been in Lin- 
coln's Springfield home. 



8Q 



Since the provenance for the Rockh ill stand appears reliable, the 
oak stand was probably miscatalogued at Ford's Theatre, in place 
of the original stand, which now cannot be located. 

In the stereoscope view of the Oldroyd Collection taken in 1886, 
a stand may be seen and it is emphasized by a number. This may 
be an illustration of the Rockhill stand. 

SECRETARIES AND DESKS: 

Secretary-Desk (LIHO 6) 

The secretary-desk, now in the Lincoln Home back parlor, de- 
scended in the family of Ninian Edwards, brother-in-law of Presi- 
dent Lincoln. It was acquired from Mary Edwards Brown who inher- 
ited the desk from her father Albert S. Edwards who, in turn, had 
received it from his father Ninian Edwards. According to family 
tradition, Ninian Edwards purchased the desk from Mr. Lincoln 
prior to his departure for Washington. 

There is a discrepancy in the records about where the desk orig- 
inally was located. Mr. Lincoln's office and his home are both 
referred to in different documents. An affidavit (in the LIHO 
accession files), sworn to by Mary Edwards Brown, May 2, 1925, 
states that "the desk to which this certificate is attached... 
used by him [Mr. Lincoln] in his law office in said City of 



90 



Springfield." Unfortunately, Mrs. Brown does not clearly identi- 
fy the desk. She could be referring to another piece of furni- 
ture. A memo written in 1956 by Richard Hagen, Historical Con- 
sultant, to William Allen (Lincoln Home files in the Illinois 
State Historical Library) concerning acquiring funds for the 
purchase, however, reiterates the story that the desk was used in 
Lincoln's law office. Hagen more clearly identifies the piece of 
furniture by referring to it as a secretary-bookcase. The price 
mentioned is also the same as that paid by the State for the Ed- 
wards secretary-desk. The confusion arises because the purchase 
order states that the secretary-desk was used in the Lincoln Home 
and the catalogue card for this item contains the same story. 
Based on the evidence mentioned above, the logical conclusion is 
that a mistake was made on the purchase order and then was repeat- 
ed at the time the collection was catalogued, which took place in 
1973, many years after the original purchase. This secretary 
also does not resemble the one shown in the Lesl ie 's drawing or 
the one in the Til ton stereoscope view. 



Secretary , walnut, in two sections (Chicago Historical Society, 
Accession No. 1920.240) 

No known provenance, said to have been used in Lincoln's home. 



Desk and Chair (Chicago Historical Society, Accession No. 1920. 
920 a-b) 

No known provenance, said to have been owned by Lincoln while he 



91 



was studying law at Vandal ia and retained by him until his depar- 
ture from Springfield. 

P ine Desk (Oldroyd Collection, Ford's Theatre, Washington, D. C. , 
Catalogue No. 3206) 

According to Ford's Theatre records, this desk has a history of 
having been used by Mr. Lincoln at Springfield. No documenta- 
tion, however, exists to support this claim. 

SOFAS: 

Sofa , transitional style between late Empire and Rococo (LIHO 5) 
No material could be located in the files at the Illinois State 
Historical Society Library or at the Lincoln Home beyond informa- 
tion found on the catalogue card. The sofa was returned to the 
home by direct descendents of the Reverend Dresser (the donor's 
name was not on the card), who sold the 8th Street house to Lin- 
coln. According to information on the catalogue card, the sofa 
was one Dresser left in the house at the time of the Lincolns' 
purchase. A problem with this history is that the sofa would 
have been in the latest style at the time the Dressers sold the 
house. Although possible, it does not seem logical that the Rev- 
erend Dresser would leave behind a brand new piece of furniture. 

According to James Hickey, Curator of the Lincoln Collection, 
Illinois State Historical Library, the sofa was donated by Mrs. 



92 



Clifford Conry, a Dresser descendent, as a piece of furniture 
which had descended in the Dresser family of Springfield. The 
sofa had not been in the Lincoln house when the Lincolns lived 
there. The sofa should not be labeled as a Lincoln piece of 
furniture. 

STEREOSCOPE: 

Stereoscope (LIHO 273) 

This stereoscope is identified by a metal label on the front 
which reads "A. Beckars, Patent April 7, 1857, Jas. Lee, N.Y. 
manufacturer." According to an affidavit signed by Annie E. 
Kavanaugh, June 16, 1926, the stereoscope was sold by Jack Hough 
to Mr. Lincoln in 1860 and acquired by her father, Hugh Gallag- 
her, in 1868. Mrs. Kavanaugh does not state how Hugh Gallagher 
obtained it. However, it is possible that it was one of the items 
stored in Springfield by the Lincolns and Hugh Gallagher could 
have acquired it from Mrs. Lincoln after Lincoln's death. When 
Mrs. R. W. Ide, Jr. acquired the stereoscope was not noted in the 
records. Many of the Kavanaugh Lincoln items passed through the 
hands of a Springfield antiques dealer, Lucy Rhea; however, in 
this instance, it is not clear whether or not Mrs. Ide purchased 
the steroscope directly. It is not mentioned in any of the 
existing Lucy Rhea correspondence. Mrs. Ide sold the stereoscope 
to the Lincoln Home in January 1954. 



93 



Since there are several unexplainable gaps in the provenance of 
the stereoscope, the Lincoln association must be considered 
unconfirmed though plausible. 

TABLES: 

Table , occasional, marble topped, Renaissance Revival Style 
TLTHO 55) 

According to the catalogue card, this table was acquired by the 

Lincoln Home from Mrs. Bertha Gilmore of Massapequa, New York, 

with a history of Lincoln ownership. The records for this table 

are incomplete; however, stylistically, it is doubtful that the 

table dates prior to 1865. Therefore, its Lincoln history of 

ownership (at least during the Lincolns' Springfield period of 

residence) is not likely. No further information was located in 

the files. 

Table (Present location unknown) 

In 1953, Richard Hagen, Historical consultant to the Division of 
Parks and Memorials, purchased a whatnot, a table, and four 
pieces o^ china with Lincoln histories from L.C. Handy Studios 
in Washington, D. C. (see p. 101 for discussions of other items). 
According to Mrs. Evans, one of the owners of Handy Studios, 
these items were originally purchased by Isaac Strohm of Spring- 
field at the 1861 Lincoln sale. Mrs. Evans purchased these fur- 



04 



nishings from W. English who provided her with their history. No 
affidavits appear to have accompanied this purchase. 

Proof of the provenance of these items is not strong. They 
changed hands several times, and they did not have any accompany- 
ing supportive data, such as a bill of sale or an affidavit by 
the original purchaser. Unless further information is found, 
these items should not be labeled as original to the Lincoln 
home. 

Table , Center, Mahogany and Marble (Present location unknown) 
Information about the provenance of this table is incomplete. 
According to the files, this table was given to the Lincoln Home 
in 1942 by the Volicos family. At the time it was given, the 
table was said to have been in the Volicos' family for fifty 
years. 

Table (Present location unknown) 

Another table is mentioned in the Lucy Rhea correspondence as 
having come from the Lincoln Home; however, the records do not 
indicate that this table was ever acquired for the Home. It is 
included here in case further information becomes available. In 
a letter (July 17, 1934) written by Mrs. Rhea to Virginia (possi- 
bly Virginia Brown, caretaker at the Home), Mrs. Rhea lists a 
number of items with a Lincoln association that she wishes to 



95 



sell, several of which were acquired for the Home (see pp. 55-57, 
75-76, 80-81, 93-94, 103-104, 125-127, and 132-133) with the ap- 
parent exception of this table and two pieces of fabric. In the 
1934 letter, Mrs. Rhea described the table as "oval marble top 
walnut table formerly property of Mrs. Lincoln now in Springfield 
Art Association and filled with old glass cabinet on top that had 
formerly belonged to Lincolns." A statement by Mrs. Rhea listing 
four pieces of furniture was also found in LIHO Accession File 
No. 1. Two of the pieces of furniture were supposedly from the 
Lincoln Home, a rocker (LIHO 94), which was purchased from Mrs. 
Rhea, and the above mentioned table. In this statement, Mrs. Rhea 
adds the information that an affidavit was available although she 
does not say from whom. Another rocker (LIHO 126) was also pur- 
chased from Mrs. Rhea according to the LIHO catalogue and an ac- 
companying affidavit states that it originally belonged to Mrs. 
Lincoln. The history of this table is not sufficient to state 
whether or not it was ever originally located in the Lincoln 
home. 

WHATNOTS: 

Whatnots 

Two whatnots are visible in the 1861 Lesl ie's drawings of the 
Parlor. The one in the northwest corner of the parlor may be a 
triangular shaped corner whatnot, although its shape is not clear 



96 



from the drawings. One mid-nineteenth-century wall whatnot (now 
found in the Lincoln Home), a corner one in the Chicago Histori- 
cal Society, and a whatnot owned by the Melvin family have a his- 
tory of Lincoln ownership. The whatnot with the strongest Lin- 
coln provenance is one owned by the descendents of Dr. Samuel 
Houston Melvin, a Springfield doctor, who originally purchased 
the whatnot from the Lincoln sale, February 9, 1861, for $10.00. 
The bill of sale signed by Abraham Lincoln was kept by the family 
along with the whatnot and a wardrobe. For many years, this 
whatnot was on display at the Oakland (California) Municipal 
Museum, to whom it was loaned by Dr. Melvin's son, Henry Melvin. 

The other whatnot (LIHO 24) now in the Lincoln Home was purchased 
in 1953 by the Division of Parks and Memorials on the recommenda- 
tion of Richard Hagen. He found several items supposedly owned 
by Lincoln at an antique store in Washington, D.C., the L.C. 
Handy Studios, owned by Mrs. Mary H. Evans. According to Mrs. 
Evans, she acquired the whatnot from W. English, who had bought 
it from Isaac Strohm of Springfield, who had purchased it from 
the Lincoln sale in 1861. Although Strohm does not appear in the 
1860-1861 Springfield City Directory, he is listed in the 1850 
census for Sangamon County, City of Springfield, as a 10-year-old 
boy. 



97 



The whatnot (Accession No. 1921.7) at the Chicago Historical 
Society also has inconclusive evidence in support of the claim 
that it came from the Lincoln home; however, it is the only known 
corner whatnot with a Lincoln history. The Historical Society 
acquired the whatnot in 1921 from a Miss Camille Henry of Chicago 
whose father, according to the Henry family tradition, purchased 
the whatnot from the Lincolns when they left for Washington. 

ACCESSORY FURNISHINGS 

SPRINGFIELD STORE ACCOUNTS: 

The following items are taken from the Lincoln family's accounts 

72 
with Springfield stores. Although the present location of 

these items is unknown, all would be appropriate for display at 

LIHO. 

Irwin & Co . 

May 21, 1844 Two Fire Screens 

John Wil liams & Co . 

May 27, 1851 1 Small Basket, Per Lady $ .23 

Feb. 2, 1853 1 Pair Blankets $ 7.50 

Feb. 9, 1853 1 Marseilles Quilt $ 6.50 

May 17, 1856 2 White Chambers @ 1.25, Per Son $ 2.50 

Sept. 3, 1856 1 Pair Shell Side Combs, Per Lady $ .50 

Feb. 2, 1859 1 Watch Guard, Per Robert $ .15 



98 



Apr. 8, 1859 6 Bars Lead @ .05, Per Robert $ .30 

Apr. 14, 1859 Flannel for Gun Cover, Per Robert $ .30 

Aug. 23, 1859 6 French Towels (.35) $ 2.10 
Corneau & Diller 



Jan. 27, 1859 Hair Brush 


$ 1.59 


May 21, 1859 Bottle Indelible Ink 


$ .25 


C. M. and S. Smith & Co. 





Jan. 17, 1859 1 Umbrella, Per Bob $ .75 

Feb. 1, 1859 1 Paper Tacks, Per Son $ .10 

Feb. 17, 1859 1 Set Knitting Needles, Per Son $ .05 

Apr. 14, 1859 2 Paper Tacks .10 $ .20 

Apr. 19, 1859 1 Tuck Comb $ .75 

Apr. 23, 1859 1 Table Cover, Per Lady $ 3.75 

Apr. 30, 1859 1 Bowl, Per Bob $ .87 

1 Pitcher, Per Bob $ 1.25 

May 6, 1859 6 3/4 yds. Table Linen .75, 

Per Lady $ 5.06 

May 18, 1859 1 Water Bucket, Per Son $ .25 

June 30, 1859 2 Paper Needles .10, Per Lady $ .20 

July 12, 1859 1 Wash Bowl, Per Lady $ .50 

July 20, 1859 1 Comb, Per Son $ .20 

Aug. 6, 1859 1 Fine Comb, Per Lady $ .25 

1 Hair Brush $ .75 

Aug. 18, 1859 1 Table Cloth, Per Lady $14.00 

13s Doz. Napkins 4.25 $ 6.30 



99 



Aug. 22, 1859 1 Pocket Knife, Per Bob $ 1.25 

Aug. 23, 1859 6 French Towels @ .35, Per Robert $ 2.10 

Sept. 6, 1859 1 Tidie, Per Lady $ 1.00 

Sept. 7, 1859 1 Tidie, Per Lady $ 1.25 

Sept. 8, 1859 1 Tidie Returned $ 1.00 

Sept. 29, 1859 1 Parasol, Per Lady $ 3.00 

Oct. 6, 1859 3 Paper Tacks @ .08 1/3 $ .25 

Dec. 2, 1859 2 Comforts @ .75 $ 1.50 

BASKET OF APPLES: 

In an article entitled "Lincoln As I Knew Him," Charles S. Zane, 

a Springfield resident, recalled a visit to the Lincoln home. He 

recounted, "On reaching the house, we found a large basket of 

73 
apples in the sitting room and were invited to help ourselves." 

V0LK BUST OF LINCOLN: 

In an article in Century Magazine of December 1881, Leonard Volk 

recalled making a small bust of Lincoln and presenting it to Mrs. 

Lincoln in Springfield: 

I was invited into the parlor and soon Mrs. 
Lincoln entered holding a rose bouquet in her 
hand, which she presented to me after the in- 
troduction; and in return I gave her a cabinet 
size bust of her husband, which I had modelled 
from the large one. 

This bust appears in the Lesl ie's drawing of the front parlor, on 

the top shelf of the whatnot. 



100 



DINNERWARE, ETC.: 

Lincoln Silver & Glassware: Six Silver Forks, Three Cut Glass Gob - 
lets, An Inkwell, and Sand Shaker ; (Present locations unknown) 

According to an article in the Springfield Register dated Novem- 
ber 9, 1923, these artifacts were exhibited in the window of the 
J.C. Klaholt & Co. jewelry store. A Mrs. Mae McKnight was offer- 
ing them for sale. The newspaper printed the affidavit signed by 
Mrs. McKnight (November 9, 1923) which outlined the artifacts' 
history. Mrs. McKnight stated: 

I... do hereby certify that the six silver 
forks, three cut-glass goblets, an inkwell, 
and sand shaker in my possession were pur- 
chased from Abraham Lincoln at the old Lincoln 
home in Springfield in 1861 when Mr. Lincoln 
sold his household goods and left for Washing- 
ton, to become President of the United States. 

I further certify that the aforesaid heirlooms 
were in the personal possession and use of 
Abraham Lincoln and members of his family, and 
that they were purchased from Mr. Lincoln by 
my grandmother, Mrs. Roxana Mclntire, who 
originally had one dozen knives and forks and 
one dozen glasses. These heirlooms were handed 
down by my grandmother to my mother, Mrs. D.A. 
Nafew, and by her, to me. 

The Lincoln provenance for these items appears to be well docu- 
mented up to 1923. Unfortunately, the location of these items is 
presently unknown. 

Lincoln Home Artifacts with Lincoln History of Ownership : 

Ironstone Bowl (LIHO 193); Creamware Pitcher (LIHO 197); Trans - 
fer Printed Plate (LIHO 192); Leaf Shape Ironstone Serving Dish 
(LIHO 195) 



101 



These four pieces of china, supposedly from the Lincoln Home, 
were among the six items with a Lincoln provenance purchased in 
1953 from L.C. Handy Studios in Washington, D. C. The history of 
the ownership of this china, as told by one of the owners of 
Handy Studios, Mary Evans, is that it was purchased at the 1861 
Lincoln sale by Isaac Strohm, a Springfield resident. Strohm 
does not appear in the 1860-61 Springfield Directory, although he 
was listed as a 10-year-old boy in the 1850 Springfield census. 
No affidavits substantiate this story. The archeological evi- 
dence of china in use during the Lincoln period, however, shows 
evidence of these types of ceramics. Although this is not enough 
information to verify the Lincoln association with these ceram- 
ics, they are characteristic of ceramics in use at mid-century. 

The leaf shape serving dish is marked with the impress "J. Clem- 
entson," a mark in use by the Joseph Clementson Staffordshire 
potteries from 1839 to 1864. 74 

Hand Painted China Dinner Plate LIHO 196; Glass Pitcher with 
Painted Decoration LIHO 259; Abalone Shell LIHO 290; Abalone 
Shell LIHO 291 

These items were given to the Lincoln Home in the 1920s by Logan 

Hay, according to a letter from Hay in the LIHO files. Hay was a 

member of a Springfield family who had been neighbors of the 

Lincolns. According to Mr. Hay, these items had all belonged to 



102 



Mrs. Lincoln. No affidavits or explanations of provenance were 
found to accompany the artifacts; therefore, they cannot at this 
time be authenticated as Lincoln items. 

According to the catalogue cards for the shells, they were used 
to hold down Mrs. Lincoln's drapes. This history, however, does 
not seem likely; shells do not appear in the 1861 Leslie's Illus - 
trated drawings and those drawings show the drapes just touching 
the floor. One visitor's account at that time mentions seeing 
shells on the whatnots. Displaying shells as knick-knacks on 
shelves is a more likely practice than using them to hold down 
drapes on the floor. Moreover, the additional length required for 
the draperies to be held down in this fashion would have been a 
costly luxury. 

Pressed Glass Cake Stand (LIHO 255) 

This cake stand was purchased from Mrs. Lucy Rhea in 1934. Corre- 
spondence from Mrs. Rhea prior to that time also mentions the 
cake stand. In a letter she wrote July 17, 1934, to Virginia 
[Brown], she described it as "Mrs. Lincoln's high glass cake 
stand." 

The invoice states there was an accompanying affidavit; however, 
it is currently missing and the Lincoln provenance cannot be 



103 



stated absolutely. Although the cake stand cannot at this time 
be authenticated, it is likely that Mary Lincoln owned such an 
i tern . 

LINCOLN FAMILY ARTIFACTS IN OTHER COLLECTIONS 

Listed by owner with the provenance included, if known. Only 
those items have been included that could date from the Spring- 
field period and have some documentation in support of their Lin- 
coln association. 

Collection of Mary Edwards Brown 

Several Lincoln items were acquired in 1957 from Mary Edwards 
Brown, grandniece of Mary Todd Lincoln by the Illinois State His- 
torical Society Library. These artifacts were accompanied by af- 
fidavits signed by Mary Edwards Brown stating that she inherited 
them from various family members: 

One wool pink and yellow shawl (LIHO 744, a white shawl, with a 
pink ribbon and yellowed with age, has a history of having come 
from Mary Lincoln through Mary Edwards Brown and may be this 
shawl) formerly belonging to Mrs. Lincoln. 
Lap robe , b il Ifold , and penholder belonging to Abraham Lincoln. 

Collection of James Hickey, Springfield, Illinois 

Three daguerreotypes of Robert, Tad, and Willie Lincoln, believed 

to have been used in the Lincoln home. 



104 



Library of Congress, Washington, D.C . 

A pair of daguerreotypes of Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln originally hung 
in the Lincoln Home in Springfield. A letter from Robert Todd 
Lincoln about a daguerreotype of his father affirms that these 
daguerreotypes were a pair hung in the Lincoln Home, "the daguer- 
reotype was on the walls of a room in my father's house from my 

earliest recollection as a companion picture to that of my 

75 
mother. " 

Chicago Historical Society 

A silver watch (Accession No. 1927.2), dating ca. 1850, was given 
to the Historical Society by Dr. Otto C. Schmidt. On the back of 
the watch is pasted a small piece of paper with the following in- 
scription: "Springfield, July 31, 1858" and "A. Lincoln." The 
Historical Society records indicate no further known provenance. 

A pair of rubbers (Accession No. 1920.683 a,b.), ca. 1860, was 
acquired by the Historical Society as part of the Charles F. Gun- 
ther Collection with a history of Lincoln ownership. The His- 
torical Society Records do not indicate any known provenance. 
The rubbers are marked on the bottom "Boston Rubber Shoe" with an 
eagle holding a shield insignia beneath and the words "Goodyear's 
Patent." 



105 



Collection of John K. Lattimer, M.D., Sc.D , College of Physicians 
and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, New York 10032. 

A small leather (cowhide) trunk came up for sale in the early 

1970s at Charles Hamilton's Auctioneers, in New York, where it 

was purchased by Nathaniel Stein from whom it was purchased by 

Dr. Lattimer. 



Articles (Location Unknown) Received from Robert Todd Lincoln by 
M rs. G. J. Sinninger . 

Margaret Sinninger was a good friend of Robert Todd Lincoln and 

79 
her account should be considered reliable. 



These articles were offered to the Chicago Historical Society in 
January 1937. A copy of the correspondence listing the items was 
located in the Lincoln Home files, Illinois State Historical 
Society Library. Only those items which may have come from the 
Lincoln home in Springfield are included below. The correspond- 
ence lists: 



Al bum given by Abraham Lincoln to Mary 
Todd. Shield on cover is engraved "A.L. to 
M.T." It has a brass clasp and is dated De- 
cember 25, 1841. It is black leather, faded 
with age, and contains photographs taken dur- 
ing the Civil War of Abraham Lincoln, Mrs. 
Edwards, the Governors of many States, and 
many Generals of the Army. 



Eyeglasses and case carried and used by 
Abraham Lincoln. 



106 



Baby picture of Robert Todd Lincoln , 3" x 

2V is old-fashioned book having small gold 

edge and the outside is covered with rose vel- 
vet. 



Baby picture of Willie Lincoln framed the 
same as the baby picture of Robert Todd Lin- 
coln. 



Picture of George Washington , 26V x 19V, 
which hung in the home of Abraham Lincoln. 
Painted by Gilbert Stuart, engraved by 0. Pel- 
ton, published by Gordon Bill, Springfield, 
Massachusetts. The name Washington appears at 
the bottom. 



Small engraving of the mother of Abraham 
Lincoln in a round oval frame. 



Photograph of Herndon , law partner of 
Abraham Lincoln, with chromo frame . Picture 
was used in the Springfield home. 



[Note that this information corresponds to information in one of 
the written accounts describing the home in 1867. J. Bliss men- 
tions seeing a picture of Herndon hanging in the parlor. See 
pp. 40-41 for written account.] 



Photograph of Robert Todd Lincoln framed 
in old chromo walnut and was used in the Lin- 
coln home in Springfield, Illinois. 



Lincoln College, Lincoln, Illinois 

Lincoln College acquired four Lincoln items from the family of 
John Kuecher. (See pp. 138-141 for discussion of Kuecher collec- 
tion. ) 



107 



China penholder and pen , 2" x 2V, ac- 
quired by Lincoln College through King Hostick 
from Robert Watson Kuecher, grandson of John 
Kuecher. 



L antern , black, tin, 4%" x 4V x 11", for 
a candle, acquired by Lincoln College through 
King Hostick from Robert Watson Kuecher. Said 
to have been given by A. Lincoln to John Kue- 
cher before the Lincolns moved from Spring- 
field. 



Plate , marked with lion, unicorn, and 
shield surmounted by crown and lion ("Lillet" 
under larger lion), reportedly owned by Mary 
Lincoln and given to Mrs. John Kuecher. 



Carving set , including knife, fork, and 
sharpener, marked J. A. Henckel's Twin Works, 
Solingen, Germany. Acquired by Lincoln Col- 
lege through King Hostick from Robert Watson 
Kuecher. 



Fuller-Werner Co., Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

A photocopy of an article (found in LIHO Accession File No. 1), 
which appeared in Wisconsin Magazine , January-February 1924, pic- 
tures an elaborate wood burning stove , patented in 1849, which, 
according to the Fuller-Werner Co., was used by Lincoln in his 
Springfield home. The Fuller-Werner Co. acquired the stove 
through Mr. Jones, who purchased it in 1873 in Springfield. This 
provenance is, however, not conclusive because of the twelve-year 
gap between the time the Lincolns sold their belongings and Mr. 



108 



Jones' purchase of the stove. This stove is, however, very simi- 
lar to the one shown in the Leslie's Illustrated drawing of the 
Lincolns' front parlor. 

RECORDED KITCHEN FURNISHINGS 

STOVE: 

The Royal Oak cook stove now in the Lincoln Home Kitchen (LIHO 
559), thought to have once been Mrs. Lincoln's, came back to the 
Home with several other items from the Oldroyd Collection. It 
has a well -documented history. The stove's provenance is de- 
scribed in the 1896 Descriptive Catalogue of the Oldroyd Collec - 
tion by Charles Coe. He wrote: 

Stove, cook; "Royal Oak," no. 9, manufactured 
by Jewett and Root, Buffalo, N.Y., 1855. This 
stove--an old-fashioned woodburner, with four 
lids--and a wide hearth, — was in use by the 
family previous to their departure for Washing- 
ton. It is still in good serviceable condi- 
tion. An accompanying affidavit made by the 
son of E. Kreigh, stove dealer, Springfield, 
states that an entry in his father's books 
shows that Mr. Lincoln^urchased the stove on 
the 9th of June, I860. 

The original affidavit appears to be missing; however, the stove 
is identifiable by a stamped manufacturer's mark, and the sug- 
gested history is plausible. Kreigh was a Springfield stove 
merchant and two checks for wery small sums written by Mr. Lin- 



109 



coin in 1859 (see p. 119) to Springfield stove merchants, P. A. 

Dorwin & Co. (February 16, 1859) and D.J. Boynton (September 7, 

1859) might indicate that his old stove was having repairs or 
worn parts replaced. 

CUPBOARD: 

There are written references to the presence of a kitchen cup- 
board during the Lincoln occupancy, although there is no known 

81 
existing cupboard. A reminiscence, told in connection with a 

cupboard in the (Chicago) Lincoln Memorial Collection, specified 

a pie cupboard in the Lincoln Kitchen: 

There is an old cupboard — the sort your grand- 
mother probably used. It is five feet high; 
has board doors and a strong lock. A gentle- 
man who was a visitor to the Lincoln mansion 
in Springfield in the earlier days vouches for 
this: 

In this cupboard, Mrs. Lincoln kept her pies, 
cakes, and preserves. On one occasion, com- 
pany was expected. The cupboard was comforta- 
bly crowded with delicacies. The boys--Bob 
and Tad — went to the room in which the cup- 
board stood and gorged themselves with the 
contents, thus getting what you newspaper 
fellows would call a "scoop" on the company. 
Mrs. Lincoln thereupon ordered this lock to be 
placed on the cupboard, and she carried the 
key to the same up to the day the family left 
Springfield for Washington. (Article about 
the Lincoln Memorial Collection, Chicago Trib - 
une , Monday, April 17, 1890.) 



110 



The cupboard in the Lincoln Memorial Collection, however, is 
clearly a wardrobe and probably was in one of the bedrooms. The 
reminiscence possibly refers to another cupboard. 

Another newspaper article (in the Danville Commercial -News , 
Danville, Illinois, February 13, 1929) mentions a Lincoln cup- 
board and several pieces of china which belonged to a Mrs. Eugene 
Jackson, great-granddaughter of Maria Vance, who claimed to have 
been a cook in the Lincoln household. 

Although there is some doubt among Lincoln scholars as to whether 
or not Maria Vance was a cook in the Lincoln household and how 
long she was employed, Robert Lincoln did pay her a visit in 
Danville in 1897, which suggests she was at one time associated 

op 

with the Lincolns. 

According to the article, Maria Vance "helped pack the household 
goods and was given numerous articles as keepsakes, which are 
scattered now." A porridge set, bowl, saucer and pitcher, of 
"delicate design" were mentioned as well as a cupboard, which 
family tradition claimed was given to Maria as a wedding present. 
The cupboard was described as "old style 'safe' form" resting on 
a base. 



Ill 



For possible kitchen chairs , see pp. 53 through 60, the general 
section on Lincoln chairs. Possible kitchen china is discussed 
on pp. 101 through 104. 

The following pages contain lists, in chronological order, of 
spices, foodstuffs, and a few kitchen utensils which the Lincolns 
purchased at nearby Springfield stores. These purchases would 
have been found on the Lincoln kitchen shelves. 

KITCHEN PURCHASES: 



Kitchen purchases listed in Pratt, Personal Finances of Abraham 
Lincoln: 



Irwin 










Feb. 


21, 


1853 


1 4-Prong Fork 


$ 1 


.25 


Mar. 


24, 


1853 


h yd. Oil Cloth @ .50 


$ 


.25 


Mar. 


30, 


1853 


5/8 yd. Oil Cloth @ .50 


$ 


.31 


Mar. 


1, 


1855 


h lb. Tea @ 1.25, Per Son 


$ 


.63 


July 


21, 


1855 


H lb. Gun Powder Tea 1.25, 
Per Son 


$ 


.63 


Aug. 


15, 


1855 


h lb. Tea, Per Son 


$ 


.63 


Nov. 


26, 


1855 


1 Glass Lantern, Per Son 


$ 1 


.00 


Jan. 


23, 


1857 


h lb. Tea @ 1.25, Per Son 


$ 


.62 


Aug. 


3, 


1857 


H lb. Tea @ 1.25, Per Son 


$ 


.64 


Aug. 


20, 


1858 


1 lb. Tea 


$ 1 


.00 



112 



Aug. 21, 1858 1 Box Palm Soap 62 @ .07 $ 4.34 

5 lbs. Java Coffee $ 1.00 

8 lbs. Sugar, Per Son $ 1.00 

Sept. 11, 1858 5 lbs. Java Coffee $ 1.00 

Sept. 25, 1858 5 lbs. Java Coffee $ 1.00 

Oct. 16, 1858 9 lbs. Sugar $ 1.00 

5 lbs. Java Coffee $1.00 

Corneau & Oil ler 



Mar. 


15, 


1855 


Sweet Oil 


$ 


.10 


June 


29, 


1855 


Bottle Vermifuge 


$ 


.25 


July 


6, 


1855 


1 # Cream of Tarter 
h # Soda 
Soda Water 


$ 
$ 
$ 


.60 
.10 
.10 


Aug. 


10, 


1855 


1 Paper Horse Powder 


$ 


.40 


Aug. 


17, 


1855 


1 Paper Horse Powder 


t 


.75 


Oct. 


31, 


1855 


1 # Cream of Tartar 
h # Soda 


$ 
$ 


.60 
.10 


Feb. 


24, 


1856 


Sweet Oil 


$ 


.15 


Jan. 


29, 


1857 


Bal . on Gelatin 


$ 


.40 


Feb. 


11, 


1857 


Olive Oil 


$ 


.15 


June 


13, 


1857 


2 # Cream of Tartar 


$ 


1.00 


July 


20, 


1857 


2 Bottles Extract Vanilla 


$ 


.70 


Jan. 


12, 


1859 


3 oz. Red Gelatin 
Isinglass 


$ 
$ 


.60 

.60 



Jan. 27, 1859 2 Cakes Soap $ .50 



113 



Jan. 31, 1859 


6 oz. Red Gelatin 
Cooper Isinglass 
1 # Cream of Tartar 


$ 1.00 
$ .75 
$ .50 


Feb. 5, 1859 


4 lbs. Starch 


$ .50 


May 13, 1859 


3 Cakes Soap 


$ .50 


June 3, 1859 


Bottle Brandy 


$ 2.00 


June 7, 1859 


Extract of Almond 


$ .35 


June 13, 1859 


Bottle of Brandy 


$ 2.00 


Sept. 6, 1859 


Bottle Dead Shot (Bedbug Remedy) 


$ .25 


Dec. 23, 1859 


Borax 


$ .05 


C. M. & S. Smith 






Jan. 4, 1859 


10 lbs. Sugar @ .10, Per Son 


$ 1.00 


Jan. 6, 1859 


4 lbs. Star Candles @ .25 


$ 1.00 


Jan. 8, 1859 


1 Gal Ion C. Syrup 


$ 1.00 


Jan. 10, 1859 


8 lb. Turkey .10, Per Lady 


$ .80 


Jan. 13, 1859 


6 lbs. Crushed Sugar @ .16 2/3, 
Per Son 


$ 1.00 


Jan. 14, 1859 


5 Doz. Eggs @ .20, Per Son 


$ 1.00 


Jan. 15, 1859 


1 Gal . Syrup, Per Son 


$ 1.00 



11 lbs. Sugar $ 1.00 

Jan. 25, 1859 1 Gallon C. Syrup, Per Son $ 1.00 

11 lbs. Sugar $ 1.00 

Jan. 26, 1859 1 Box Blacking, Per Son $ .10 

Jan. 31, 1859 6 lbs. Sugar .16 2/3, Per Son $ 1.00 

Feb. 8, 1859 Paid for 3 Loads Wood, Per Bob $ 6.00 



114 



Feb. 


10, 1859 


A.L. to John Baker, Wood 


$ 1.75 


Feb. 


14, 1859 


11 lbs. Sugar, Per Son 


$ 1.00 


Feb. 


24, 1859 


11 lbs. Sugar, Per Son 
1 Gal . C. Syrup 
4 lbs. Star Candles .25, 
Per Son 


$ 1.00 
$ 1.00 

$ 1.00 


Mar. 


7, 1859 


11 lbs. Sugar, Per Son 


$ 1.00 


Mar. 


10, 1859 


5 lbs. Coffee .20, Per Lady 


$ 1.00 


Mar. 


19, 1859 


10 lbs. Sugar .10, Per Son 
4 lbs. Candles .25 


$ 1.00 
$ 1.00 


Mar. 


28, 1859 


32 lbs. Java Coffee .18, 
per Dyer Drayage 


$ 5.76 


Apr. 


4, 1859 


4 doz. Eggs .10, Per Son 


$ .40 


Apr. 


6, 1859 


J3 lb. Tea, Per Son 


$ .50 


Apr. 


9, 1859 


10 lbs. Sugar .25 

4 lbs. Star Candles .25 


$ 2.50 
$ 1.00 


Apr. 


14, 1859 


1 Peck Potatoes 


$ .30 


Apr. 


21, 1859 


10 lbs. Sugar .10, Per Son 
1 Box Cinnamon 


$ 1.00 
$ .15 


Apr. 


30, 1859 


10 lbs. Sugar .10, Per Bob 


$ 1.00 


May 


6, 1859 


6 lbs. Crushed Sugar .16 2/3 
4 lbs. Candles .25 


$ 1.00 
$ 1.00 


May 


11, 1859 


10 lbs. Sugar .10, Per Son 


$ 1.00 


May 


20, 1859 


h lb. Star Candles .25, 
Per Bob 


$ .13 


May 


23, 1859 


h lb. Tea 1.00, Per Son 


$ .50 


May 


26, 1859 


10 lbs. Sugar .10, Per Son 


$ 1.00 



115 



June 3, 1859 


11 lbs. Sugar, Per Son 


$ 1.00 


June 7, 1859 


6 lbs. White Sugar @ .16 2/3, 
Per Bob 


$ 1.00 


June 9, 1859 


Salt for Ice Cream, Per Dyer 


$ .40 


June 10, 1859 


6 doz. Eggs .08 1/3, Per Son 


$ .50 


June 17, 1859 


11 lbs. Sugar, Per Bob 


$ 1.00 


June 21, 1859 


1 Paper Pepper, Per Bob 


$ .05 


June 25, 1859 


11 lbs. Sugar, Per Son 


$ 1.00 


July 9, 1859 


11 lbs. Sugar, Per Son 


$ 1.00 


July 12,1859 


1 Box, Per Lady 
66 lbs. Soap @ .07 


$ .25 
$ 4.62 


July 18, 1859 


*a Ga. Vinegar @ .25 


$ .13 


July 23, 1859 


11 lbs. Sugar 


$ 1.00 


July 25, 1859 


22 lbs. Sugar 


$ 2.00 


July 29, 1859 


6 Chickens @ .15, Per Son 


$ .90 


Aug. 2, 1859 


1 Blacking Brush, Per Son 


$ .25 


Aug. 4, 1859 


2 Doz. Nutmegs @ .12k, Per Son 


$ .25 


Aug. 16, 1859 


11 lbs. Sugar 


$ 1.00 


Sept. 9, 1859 


6 lbs. Sugar @ .08 1/3, Per Lady 

4 lbs. Star Candles .25 

5 lbs. Java Coffee @ .20 
Nutmeg 


$ .50 
$ 1.00 
$ 1.00 
$ .10 


Oct. 1, 1859 


5 lbs. Java Coffee @ .20, 
Per Lady 


$ 1.00 




5 lbs. Sugar P .10 


$ .50 



116 



Oct. 6, 1859 10 lbs. Sugar .10, Per Lady $ 1.00 

3% lbs. Crushed Sugar .16 2/3 $ .50 

3k lbs. Pulverized Sugar @ 

.16 2/3 $ .50 

1 oz. Nutmeg $ .15 

1 Bottle Lemon $ .25 

1 doz. Eggs $ .10 

Oct. 7, 1859 1 Broom, Per Lady $ .25 

Oct. 10, 1859 2 Barlow Knives .10, Per Self $ .20 

Oct. 13, 1859 5 lbs. Java Coffee @ .20, 

Per Son $ 1.00 

1 Box Salt @ .25 $ .25 

Oct. 19, 1859 10 lbs. Sugar @ .10, Per Lady $ 1.00 

5 lbs. Coffee .20 $ 1.00 

2 oz. Indigo .12% $ .25 
1 Bottle Lemon $ .25 

Oct. 21, 1859 1 Box Cinnamon, Per Son $ .15 

Nov. 12, 1859 10 lbs. Sugar (j> .10, Per Lady $ 1.00 

4 lbs. Star Candles .25 $ 1.00 

Nov. 12, 1859 1 Box Blacking $ .10 

1 Paper Matches $ . 15 

Nov. 14, 1859 2 Brooms .30, Per Lady $ .60 

3 bu. Potatoes @ .40 $ 1.20 

1 Bottle Lemon $ .25 

2 Boxes Cinnamon @ .12% $ .25 

Dec. 1, 1859 12 lbs. Sugar @ .08 1/3, Per Lady $ 1.00 

5 lbs. Java Coffee @ .20 $ 1.00 
2 lbs. Starch @ .12% $ .25 
2 Boxes Cinnamon @ .12% $ .25 
1 Cream Tartar $ .50 
1 Peck Turnips $ .08 
1 Bottle Extract $ .25 

Dec. 2, 1859 1 Peck Apples, Per Lady $ .30 

Dec. 31, 1859 9 lbs. Crushed Sugar, Per Son $ 1.00 



117 



84 
Kitchen Purchases Found in : Lincoln Day By Day 



Feb. 22, 1849 


3 yds. Check Cloth (Irwin) 


$ .75 


Apr. 18, 1849 


Paper & Oilcloth Shelf 
"Bordering" (Irwin) 


$ 6.03 


May 7, 1849 


Groceries, 6 3/4 Moreen and 
Piece of Binding .15 (Irwin) 


$ 4.62 


May 29, 1849 


7 lbs. Sugar 


$ .50 


June 5, 1849 


Sperm Candles (Bunn) 


$ 1.00 


June 6, 1849 


6 lbs. Sugar and Lemon Syrup 
(Bunn) 


$ 1.75 


July 26, 1849 


Scythe and Handle (Irwin) 


$ 


Sept. 4, 1849 


7 lbs. Sugar (Bunn) 


$ .50 


Sept. 5, 1849 


Loaf Sugar (Bunn) 
Pound of Candles (Bunn) 


$ .50 
$ .40 


Sept. 10, 1849 


Broom (Bunn) 


$ .30 


Sept. 18, 1849 


Groceries (Irwin) 


$ 4.86 


Sept. 20, 1849 


Sundries (Bunn) 


$ 4.35 


Sept. 29, 1849 


h Gal . Vinegar (Bunn) 


$ .13 


Oct. 1, 1849 


h Gal . Vinegar (Bunn) 


$ .12 


Oct. 9, 1849 


Matches (Bunn) 


$ .13 


Oct. 11, 1849 


Sugar and Coffee (Bunn) 


$ 1.00 


Nov. 14, 1849 


Sundries, Per Maid (Bunn) 
Sundries, Per Maid (Irwin) 


$ 7.10 
$ .20 



Dec. 19, 1849 Sugar (Bunn) $ .50 



118 



Jan. 15, 1859: Lincoln writes check $50.91 to Condel 1 

Stockdale & Co. dry goods (p. 240 
Chronology) 

Jan. 18, 1854: Cough remedies (Diller's Day Book) 

Feb. 16, 1859: $2.16 to P. A. Dorwin & Co., tinware 

and stove merchants 

June 3, 1859: $2.00 Bottle of Brandy (Diller's Day 

Book) 

June 13, 1859: $2.00 Bottle of Brandy (Diller's Day 

Book) 

Sept. 7, 1859: Lincoln writes check to D. J. Boynton, 

furnace and stove dealer, $1.75 
(p. 260) 

Dec. 29, 1859: $1.25 check to J. B. Fosselman, grocer 

(p. 267) 



RECORDED FURNISHINGS - SECOND FLOOR 
PICTORIAL: 

After Lincoln's death, three Schreiber and Glover stereoscope 

views were taken of his bedroom as it appeared during the Til- 

85 
tons' residence. They were entitled "Lincoln's Bedroom," 

"Lincoln's Bed," and "Lincoln's Bedroom Washstand." During tours 

of the house, the Tiltons pointed out those pieces of furniture 

which they had purchased from the Lincolns at their sale in 1861. 

The Chicago Tribune on May 6, 1865, mentioned specific items, 

among which were a "heavy oaken bedstead" and "a chamber set." 



119 



These items were presumably among the Til ton furniture which was 
destroyed at their Chicago residence during the Great Fire in 
1871. 

From the same period as the Schreiber and Glover stereoscope 
views are a series of four drawings in the William Waud Collec- 
tion at the Library of Congress. They are of the Globe Tavern, 
the Lincoln parlors draped for the funeral, and two other rooms, 
presumably also in the Lincoln home. One of the latter illus- 
trations, No. 6, may be Lincoln's bedroom. The placement of the 
windows suggest one of the front rooms and it seems most logical 
that the illustrator would focus on Lincoln's room. A draped 
table, empire chair, bureau, mirror, and small oval pictures 
appear in the illustration. 

In this section all information, unless otherwise noted, was 
found in the Lincoln Home files at the Illinois State Historical 
Library. 

BEDS: 

Lincoln's Bed . According to the Chicago Tribune of May 6, 1865 
(see p. 38), Lincoln's "oaken bedstead" was still in the house, 
having been bought by the Til tons at the Lincolns' 1861 sale. 
The 1865 Schreiber and Glover stereoscope view of Lincoln's 



120 



bedroom confirms this account, showing what appears to be an oak 
bed. The oak grain is visible in the photograph. The only ear- 
lier evidence we have of Lincoln's bed is an 1860 visitor's 
account of sitting on a "high post bed," which description also 
fits the bed in the stereoscope view. This bed was probably 
among the Til ton furniture destroyed by the Chicago Fire of 
1871. 87 

Four other Lincoln associated beds are known to exist. Pre- 
sumably, the house would have contained five or six beds. In one 
instance Lincoln, in September of 1857, traded a "trundle bed" 
for a "cottage bedstead" from John Hutchinson's Furniture Fac- 
tory. Lincoln paid $11.00 for the new bed and received $2.00 
credit for the old one. It was a common practice at the time 
to trade in old furniture when making a new purchase; therefore, 
other Lincoln home beds may yet come to light. The following is 
a brief analysis of five known Lincoln-associated beds. 

Bedste ad (LIH0 71) 

The early nineteenth-century mahogany sleigh-type bedstead (LIH0 
71) now in the Lincoln Home has a strong family history of Lin- 
coln ownership. According to oral tradition, the bed was pur- 
chased by Colonel William Babcock of Canton, Illinois, from the 
Lincoln sale in 1861. The bed passed from Colonel Babcock to his 



121 



daughter, Elizabeth Ann Babcock, wife of William Henry Binnian, 
and was then passed down in the Binnian family to Samuel Binnian, 
a great-grandson of William Babcock. 

Bedstead and Bureau , Illinois State Governor's Mansion 
A second Lincoln-associated bedstead and a matching bureau were 
donated to the State in 1969 by the Donovan family of Lexington, 
Kentucky (now property of Illinois State Governor's Mansion). 
It is a Renaissance revival walnut chamber set. According to 
signed affidavits, the bed was bought by Mary Ticknor, who lived 
at the corner of Eighth and Jackson from 1868 to 1873, at a sale 
of furniture from the Lincoln home, "about 1872." She wrote in 
her affidavit (1938), "This bed was wider and longer than the 
ordinary bed, and had been used by Abraham Lincoln himself, and 
had been a part of Abraham Lincoln's household goods." Mary 
Ticknor sold the bed to a Miss Adele Mendenhall (Mrs. P.E. Kar- 
raker) who, in turn, gave it to the Donovans. Miss Mendenhall 's 
affidavit states the bed came from the Tiltons. This bed is not 
pictured in the Schreiber and Glover stereoscope views, nor is 
it mentioned in the 1865 newspaper accounts of those Lincoln 
items still in the house. The bureau is, however, similar to one 
depicted in the Schreiber and Glover views which belonged to the 
Tiltons and was not a Lincoln piece of furniture. 



122 



The earliest affidavit, however, the 1938 one by Mary Ticknor, 
does not mention the Tiltons. In fact, a handwritten note on the 
affidavit reads, "Bought of some neighbor not direct of Lin- 
coln's — Think it was Mrs. R (?) or Mrs. Robinson a dresser with 
it but don't know what became of it." 

The comment about the missing dresser suggests the possibility 
that this set is not the one which the Ticknors originally bought. 
Also, stylistically, the bed and bureau are more characteristic 
of furniture produced in the 1860s and 1870s, than earlier peri- 
ods. The furniture, however, is all marked with the number "1" 
which might indicate that it was the first set in a production 
line and it may have been a presentation gift to President Lin- 
coln just before his departure for Washington. On the basis of 
this latter theory, the State of Illinois has placed this set in 
the Governor's Mansion rather than the Lincoln Home. 

Bedstead , Collection of Mr. & Mrs. Evans Cantrell 

Another Lincoln Home-associated bedstead has recently come to 

light. According to Mr. and Mrs. Evans Cantrell, who now own the 

bed (it is currently being stored at Illinois State Historical 

Society Library), they bought it from the estate of a Springfield 

upholsterer, John Graham, who had received the bed from the widow 

of George Franklin Seymour (1829-1908), Protestant Episcopal Bi sh- 
oo 
op of Springfield from 1878 to 1908. 



123 



A letter written by Mrs. Seymour to Mr. Graham, in the possession 

of the Cantrells, states: 

It is the veritable bed on which rested the 
Great Statesman Lincoln. 

It was a gift to the Bishop when he finished 
and turned the old building into the "Episco- 
pal Palace" at a cost of 10,000. It was con- 
sidered a worthy offering to the Great Bish- 
op. 

Mrs. Seymour also added that the Bishop used the bed for twenty- 
five years, which indicates he was given the bed some time around 
1883, the year he moved into the "Episcopal Palace." In her 
statement to Mr. Graham, she claims the bed was slept on by 
Lincoln; she makes no mention of it coming from the Lincoln home. 

A memorandum written March 5, 1951 by Virginia Stuart Brown, 

great-grandaughter of N.W. Edwards, and grandaughter of Albert 

Edwards, states that the Seymour bed originally belonged to the 

Mini an Edwards family. Virginia Brown wrote: 

The only bed I ever heard of that was claimed 
to be Lincoln's in the Eighth Street House, 
was a four-poster owned by an upholsterer, 
John Graham. He went to Mrs. Albert Edwards 
some time before 1910 for an affidavit, which 
she refused to give as she knew that bed to be 
one owned by Mrs. Ninian Edwards, who had 
given it to Bishop Seymou§,when the Edwards 
moved into a smaller house. 

In all likelihood, this bed was slept in by Lincoln but it does 

not appear to have come from the Lincoln home. 



124 



Bedstead , the Lukins' Family, Springfield, Illinois 
"A four-poster spool type, walnut bed" was mentioned in a news- 
paper article entitled "Lincoln Bed at Former City Home" in the 
Decatur Review , Decatur, Illinois, March 1, 1931. It descended in 
the Lukins family, having been purchased by Gregory Lukins, a 
friend of Lincoln as a young man, from Lincoln in Springfield. 
According to family tradition, Gregory Lukins went to Springfield 
from Petersburg to buy a bed and he called on Mr. Lincoln who 
agreed to sell him a bed the Lincolns did not need. Gregory was 
a descendent of Peter Lukins, a friend of Lincoln from his New 
Salem days. The description of this bed as "spool type" is simi- 
lar to those beds with turned decoration which furniture catalogs 
of the mid-nineteenth century describe as "cottage bedsteads," at 
least one of which we know Lincoln bought. The oak bedstead of 
which we have a photograph can also be described as "spool type" 
and as a "cottage bedstead." The location of this bed is un- 
known. 

COMMODES AND DAYBEDS: 

Commode (LIHO 104) and Wicker Day bed (LIHO 80) 
The mahogany commode, now in Mrs. Lincoln's bedroom, and the 
wicker daybed in the front guest room, are said to have been 
purchased (along with the chest of drawers previously mentioned) 



125 



from the Lincolns by Hugh Gallagher, expressman (associated with 
Jack Hough, furniture dealer) in 1858, according to an affidavit 
written by Gallagher's daughter, Annie Kavanaugh, in 1926. 

Mrs. Kavanaugh' s affidavits for the commode and daybed stated: 

This bedroom cabinet was an important piece of 
furniture in the Lincoln Home. 

This was used as a couch during the day and a 
baby bed at night in the Lincoln Home. 

Lucy Rhea, a Springfield antiques dealer, acquired these items 
from Mrs. Kavanaugh. In Mrs. Rhea's correspondence with the 
Division of Parks and Memorials about the sale of her items 
(September 7, 1949), she added the information about the com- 
mode that it was used by Mrs. Lincoln. At that time, Mrs. Rhea 
tried to sell a silk quilt and a dress form which were never 
purchased. State Historian Jay Monaghan believed the quilt to 
date from the post-Lincoln period and also questioned the dates 
of the other items. He did not recommend their purchase unless 
needed to furnish the Home. Several years later (1953), Richard 
Hagen (Design Consultant, Archaeology & History, the State of 
Illinois) followed up on the furniture and the Colonial Dames 
purchased the commode and daybed which they then donated to the 
Home. 

Stylistically, the commode appears correct for the Lincoln period 
of occupancy in Springfield; however, the date of the daybed is 



126 



questionable. The form is characteristic of nineteenth-century 
captain's daybeds, usually made in China for the export trade, 
although some captain's daybeds are believed to have been made in 
Rhode Island. They were not a common domestic furniture form. 
The style of turning on the legs and the presence of stamped 
manufacturer's numbers on the side pieces suggests this daybed 
dates from the latter half of the nineteenth century and is of 
American manufacture. Although there is still a possibility that 
this piece of furniture belonged to the Lincolns, in all likeli- 
hood, it did not. Even if owned by the Lincolns, it was probably 
not used as a child's bed. 

BLANKET CHESTS: 

Blanket Chest (LIHO 97) 

The blanket chest reportedly belonged to Mary Lincoln and was 
given by the Lincolns to a family servant, Maria Vance, who, 
according to the story, worked for the Lincolns for eight years. 
The supporting evidence for this story is very weak. The Vance 
family sold the chest to Ada Sutton (author of the only accom- 
panying affidavit), from whom it was bought by Mrs. Carl J. Lamb 
who, in turn, sold it to the Colonial Dames for the Lincoln Home. 

The Vance family is listed in the Springfield Directories; how- 
ever, there is some question as to whether or not Maria worked 



127 



for the Lincolns and, if she did, the length of time. According 
to the census records, a Catherine Gordon worked for the Lincolns 
in 1850 and, in 1860, an M. Johnson. Mrs. Lincoln does mention a 
servant named Mary in an 1859 letter and there is a possibility 
she was referring to Maria Vance, although Mary Johnson seems 
more likely. 

Stylistically, the chest appears to date from the early nine- 
teenth century and is similar to other Kentucky-made chests. It 
is possible that Mrs. Lincoln might have owned the chest and 
might have given it away to a servant. 

BUREAUS: 

There are five bureaus (in addition to the Renaissance revival 
one mentioned on page 122) with histories indicating that they 
were at one time in the Lincoln Home. Bureaus were among the 
items listed for sale by the Lincolns in 1861 and, as there were 
six rooms on the second floor, it is possible that all five were 
indeed a part of the Lincoln furniture. 

Bureau (LIHO 60) 

The mahogany bureau, containing four drawers, the top drawer 
overhanging and supported by columns, was sold by Mr. Lincoln to 
his friend, John Roll, at the time of the Lincolns' sale in 1861, 



128 



according to the Roll family history. John Roll's son, J. Lin 

Roll, signed an affidavit in 1901 stating the origin of the 

92 
bureau and that he was selling it to Wm. E. Shutt. 



Bureaus (LIHO 1126 and 1122) 

These bureaus, now in the Lincoln Home, came by way of the Figue- 
ira family, Springfield residents. Lucinda Figueira was a seam- 
stress and reportedly sewed for Mary Todd. According to the 
Figueira family, in lieu of paying a sewing bill, Mary Todd gave 
Lucinda a bureau (LIHO 1122). Margaret B. Sylva, a descendent of 
Lucinda Figueira, signed a statement December 5, 1970, outlining 
the bureau's provenance. The bureau passed from Lucinda to her 
daughter, Elizabeth Figueira Silva, then to Elizabeth's son, 
Arthur Huitson Sylva [Silva] and his wife Margaret B. Sylva, and 
finally to the Sylvas' nephew, Robert Dona Furry, who sold it to 
the National Park Service, October 5, 1973. 

The second bureau (LIHO 1126), a mahogany veneered Federal period 
style chest of drawers, closely resembles the workmanship of a 
Lexington, Kentucky, cabinetmaker, Robert Wilson. Characteris- 
tics of Wilson's work, such as reeded pilasters, a swell front, 

single paneled ends, and double-banded veneer between case top 

93 
and top drawer are found on this chest. As Mary Todd was from 

Lexington, Kentucky, and may have brought the chest with her, 



129 



this attribution lends support to the Figueira family history. 
Mary might, indeed, have given what would have been an outdated 
old chest to her seamstress. It also does not seem likely that 
Lucinda (who was born in 1822 on the Island of Madeira) would 
otherwise have come into possession of what would have been an 
old-fashioned piece of furniture from Lexington. 

According to an affidavit (in the Henkels sale catalogue of the 
Lincoln Memorial Collection) written July 28, 1886, the Figueira 
family also sold a bureau on May 26, 1865, which they reportedly 
had purchased from the Lincoln sale of 1861, to a John C. Barker, 
who passed the bureau on to Laura Barker Perry who, in turn, sold 
it to John W. Keyes for the Lincoln Memorial Collection. The 

empire style mahogany bureau is marked on the back with the name 

Q4 
"Mrs. M.M.F. Barker." (This bureau is now LIHO 1122.) 

The Stan Henkels catalogue of the sale of the Lincoln Memorial 

Collection in 1894 contained the following entry for this bureau: 

1602. Mahogany Bureau, from the bedroom of 
Abraham Lincoln. 

Purchased by E. Figueira from Mr. & Mrs. 
Lincoln in 1861. Sold to John C. Barker, May 
26, 1865. Purchased for the Collection from 
the surviving members of John C. Barker's 
family. Accompanied with Figueira 's affidavit 
as to its genuineness. 



130 



The affidavit which accompanied the bureau is signed by Laura 
Barker's husband, Wm. Perry. Another discrepancy is that E. Fig- 
ueira was not born until 1857. They probably meant N. Figueira, 
for Nicholas Figueira (Lucinda's husband) is mentioned in the 
Perry affidavit. An 1890 newspaper article in the Chicago Trib - 
une (Monday, April 7, 1890, "Highway & Byway: Stories about Lin- 
coln & Family") recounts the same story in relation to this chest 
that the Figueira family gave for the other chest, i.e., that 
Mrs. Lincoln had given the bureau to Mrs. Figueira in lieu of 
paying a dressmaking bill. 

A walnut stand (according to the Henkels catalogue used as a wash- 
stand) accompanied the bureau from the Figueiras to the Barkers 
to the Lincoln Memorial Collection but its location is now un- 
known. 

The Figueiras may have attended the Lincoln sale and, in addition 
to the chest given them, may have purchased two pieces of furni- 
ture. However, of the two bureaus, the Federal period style one 
(LIHO 1126) appears to have a firmer history of ownership. 

Bureau (Chicago Historical Society) 

The Chicago Historical Society also owns a bureau which report- 
edly came from the Lincoln residence; this bureau also was sold 
at the 1861 sale. This bureau was purchased in the 1890s by 



131 



Charles Gunther (whose collection of Lincolniana is now at the 

Chicago Historical Society) from Mrs. Elizabeth Ashmead, the 

wife of William Ward, a neighbor of Mr. Lincoln's and a jeweler 

in Springfield. Mrs. Ashmead wrote January 31, 1894, to Mr. 

Gunther: 

...my Husband Mr. William Ward, bought the 
Bureau for me from Mrs. Lincoln at the sale of 
their household goods before she left for 
Washington. She told us that Mr. Lincoln had 
it made for their first housekeeping, when 
they were first married. 

A strange coincidence, and one that endeared 
the old Bureau to me, was, that it was the re- 
ceptacle of the flowers that I had the honor 
of making the decoration of the draperies of 
the Catafalque in Cleveland, Ohio. . . . 

Mrs. Ashmead went on to say that this bureau was exhibited both 

at the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition and at the New Orleans 

World's Fair. She added a postscript saying that Robert Lincoln 

could also identify it. Both these letters accompanied the chest 

Q 7 
to the Chicago Historical Society." 

B ureau (LIHO 102) 

The fifth bureau, and the one with the least supporting evidence, 
is a walnut chest, supposedly purchased from the Lincolns by Hugh 
Gallagher, an expressman who lived in Springfield and worked for 
J. Hough's cabinetmaking shop. Gallagher's daughter, Mrs. Annie 
E. Kavanaugh signed an affidavit in 1926 stating: 



132 



This walnut chest was used in Lincoln Home and 
purchased by Hugh Gal lager at time of removal, 
1858. 

This affidavit accompanied others that Mrs. Kavanaugh signed for 
a walnut commode and a wicker daybed. The Lincoln sale was not 
until 1861; however, there is evidence that the Lincolns did some 
furnishing in the late 1850s and these items may have been re- 
placed at that time. 

Mrs. Kavanaugh sold her Lincoln items in 1926 to a Springfield 
antiques dealer, Lucy Rhea, who passed them on to her niece, Mrs. 
F.D. Ide, who sold them to the State of Illinois for the Home. 

CHILDREN'S FURNITURE: 

There are two pieces of furniture with histories of ownership by 
Lincoln's children. 

Child's Chair (LIHO 35) 

A small child's chair was donated to the State in 1943 by John 
Black and Mrs. George Stericker. According to the catalogue card 
made up at that time, the chair was once used by Tad Lincoln. 
The file on this chair is incomplete; the original correspondence 
concerning the transfer appears to be missing. Therefore, there 
is no supporting documentation for this chair beyond the fact 
that it was donated by a Springfield family. 



133 



Ch ild's Ta ble (LI HO 75) 

A child's table was purchased by the Illinois State Department of 

Conservation in 1970 from Mrs. C. R. Zieke. The previous year, 

Mrs. Zieke had written to the State Historical Society recounting 

the family tradition associated with the table. She wrote: 

This table has been in my family for many 
years. It is my understanding that the table 
was given to my great-grandmother in Spring- 
field, who lived across the street from a 
caretaker at the Lincoln Home. 

There is an old piece of paper pasted on the 
bottom of the table which says, "Table used by 
Mr. Lincoln's children as a play table. 
Martin Ehman, a cabinetmaker, made Mr. Lincoln 
a wardrobe, and this little table was given 
him in a broken condition. He repaired it and 
gave it to his niece, Louise F. Wall, 813 N. 
8th St." It may have been this niece who gave 
it to my great-grand-mother. 

Martin Ehmann is listed in the 1860-1861 Springfield City Direc- 
tory as a carpenter and the Wall family is also listed. As 
confirmation of her story, Mrs. Zieke also sent with her cor- 
respondence a copy of a safekeeping receipt from the Lincoln 
Centennial Association (dated Feb. 12, 1924). The receipt stated 
that Mrs. Robert Wall of 813 N. 8th Street had loaned them "1 
small t^ble used by Lincoln children — Lincoln Home." 

The available evidence, the receipt, the verifications of names 
and dates, confirm the Zieke-Wall family history of the table. 



134 



Cradle 

A cradle , now on exhibit at Ford's Theater, Washington, D.C. as 
part of the Oldroyd Lincoln Memorial Collection, appears to have 
come from the Lincoln home. Charles H. Coe in the 1896 Descrip - 
tive and Historical Catalogue of the Oldroyd Lincoln Memorial Col- 
lection wrote of the cradle: 

Family cradle or crib; black walnut with 
rockers, length 4 ft., width 3 ft. 6 in., 
height 3 ft. When Mr. Lincoln was preparing 
to move to Washington, in 1861, this piece of 
furniture with several others was stored over 
John Williams' druggist's store, Springfield, 
Illinois. As Mr. Lincoln passed through the 
store, he remarked: "Colonel, the first clerk 
in your store who needs this article you can 
present it to him, with my compliments." 
A year later, one of the clerks, (George 
Davis), became the happy possessor of the 
cradle. Afterward sold to S. M. Whitcraft, of 
Springfield, and by him presented to this col- 
lection. 

The Lincolns did indeed leave furnishings above Williams' store. 
From the White House, Mary Lincoln wrote to a friend in Spring- 
field about her furniture: 

I see by the papers that Mr. Burch is married. 
We have some pieces of furniture, still remain- 
ing at his house, may I ask a favor of you — It 
is this — If Mr. Black [George M. Black of John 
S. Williams Company] can have room for them, 
can they be moved to any place above his 
store, where he may have room for them. The 
sofa, at Mr. Burch 's was new, a few months 
before we left. May I also ask you to speak 
to Mr. Black, and see if t$g 8 boxes we left 
with him, are all there.../ 



135 



DESKS: 

Mahogany Lap Desk (LIHO 308) 

The maghogany lap desk, now in Mr. Lincoln's bedroom, is well 

documented, having passed down in the family of Stephen T. Logan, 

who purchased it from Lincoln. Logan's great-granddaughter, Mrs. 

Roy W. Ide, Jr., sold it to the Illinois State Division of Parks 

and Memorials in 1953. In a letter written to Richard Hagen, 

December 27, 1953, she stated: 

The legend that I have been told is that my 
great-grandfather, Stephen T. Logan, purchased 
it from Mr. Lincoln. I was told that Lincoln 
carried it in his saddle bag when he rode the 
circuit. However, as I wrote you previously, I 
have nothing to authenticate the case. 

MIRRORS: 

Shaving Mirrors 

Three shaving mirrors have a history of having belonged to Mr. 

Lincoln. 

One, now in the Lincoln Home (LIHO 69), was a gift in the 1920s 
from Logan Hay who purchased it from Annie Kavanaugh, daughter of 
Hugh Gallagher, an expressman who worked for J. Hough's cabinet 
shop, where Lincoln purportedly purchased furniture. 

The other two shaving mirrors are in the collection of the Illi- 
nois State Historical Society. One was from a collection of 



136 



Lincolniana owned by Oliver R. Barrett of Chicago. Twelve items, 
including this mirror, were loaned to the State Historical Li- 
brary from 1924-1927 by Mr. Barrett. (See Appendix VII for a 
list of those items.) 

The other mirror in the State Historical Society collections 
descended in the family of Rita de Silva, along with a sewing 
table. Rita reportedly was a seamstress for Mrs. Lincoln. The 
mirror was sold to the State by a de Silva descendent, Edward A. 
Freitas, on June 29, 1923. 

WARDROBES: 

Wardrobe (LIHO 58) 

Abraham Lincoln listed "Wardrobes" in his 1861 newspaper ad- 
vertisement for the sale of his furnishings. Evidence shows the 
existence of at least two Lincoln family wardrobes. 

The one with the firmest Lincoln provenance is the wardrobe pur- 
chased at the 1861 sale by Dr. Samuel Melvin, a friend and neigh- 
bor of Mr. Lincoln. The wardrobe (LIHO 58) and a whatnot, also 
purchased at the sale, were handed down in the Melvin family 
until they were given to the Lincoln Home by two of Dr. Melvin's 
grandsons. Dr. Melvin's original bill of sale is among the 
published Lincoln letters. (See p. 45.) 



137 



Wardrobe (LIHO 1124) 

A second wardrobe, now in the Lincoln Home Collection, also has a 
strong Lincoln provenance, because it was once a part of the Lin- 
coln Memorial Collection. The wardrobe (along with several other 
items which were sold to the Lincoln Memorial Collection) was 
bought from the Lincolns at the 1861 sale by their neighbors, Mr. 
and Mrs. Allen Miller. The 1896 Henkels auction catalogue of the 
sale of the Lincoln Memorial Collection had the following entry 
for this wardrobe: 

1612 Walnut Double-Door Cupboard, from Abraham 
Lincoln's house. 

Purchased from Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln by Allen 
Miller, in February 1861, and accompanied with 
affidavit as to its genuineness. 

An 1890 article in the Chicago Tribune about the Lincoln Memorial 

Collection ("Highway & Byway: Stories about Lincoln & Family," 

Monday, April 17, 1890) confused this cupboard with a now unlo- 

cated kitchen cupboard or pie safe, referred to on p. 110. 

WASHSTAND, TOILET SET, QUILT, PICTURE, AND MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS: 
(Present locations unknown; Miscellaneous items are located in 
the Collection of Lincoln College, Lincoln, Illinois) 

A washst^nd, a white toilet set, quilt, and a picture (of a 

church and yard), all supposedly from the maid's room at the 

Lincoln home, along with twenty-four other items, are mentioned 

in a 1962 affidavit signed by Robert Watson Kuecher, grandson of 



138 



John B. Kuecher, a friend of Lincoln's and a Springfield resident, 
(See Appendix IV. ) 

In 1962, Morton Barker wrote Richard Hagen, historian for the 

Department of Conservation, the State of Illinois, concerning 

these items owned by Emily Barker. On August 7, 1962, Mr. Hagen 

stated: 

My regret is that I was unable to do more in 
the way of authenticating the Kuecher mate- 
rials, instead of turning up information that 
would simply nullify part of the story. 

The information which Hagen found has not yet been located. 

There is in the Lincoln Home file, however, an affidavit written 

in 1948 by Julius Kuecher, son of John Kuecher, giving certain 

Lincoln items to his nephew, Robert Watson Kuecher. It reads: 

Julius Kuecher, being first duly sworn, on 
oath states, that the following articles, of 
great historic value have been given by me to 
my nephew, Robert Watson Kuecher, and are now 
in the possession of the said Robert Watson 
Kuecher: 

One hat and hat box, purchased for Abraham 
Lincoln, at Wolfe's hat store on the West side 
of the Square in Springfield, Illinois. 

One boot jack owned by Abraham Lincoln. 

One Chair from Lincoln's Home in Springfield, 
111. 

One English plate given to Elizabeth Kuecher, 
by Mary Todd Lincoln. 



139 



One ballot box used in the Presidential elec- 
tion of 1860, in which Lincoln and Douglas 
were the opposing candidates, which ballot box 
was presided over by John Kuecher. 

One wine-corker to be used in bottling wine, 
given by Abraham Lincoln, to John Kuecher. 

This affidavit is made for the purpose of au- 
thenticating the genuineness of these above 
articles. 

Julius Frederick Kuecher (signed) 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 1st day 
of October A.D. 1948. 

John P. Snigg^signed) 
Notary Public 



None of the above mentioned items are listed in the Robert Watson 
Kuecher affidavit (with the possible exception of the chair). 

Another letter written by the wife of a John B. Kuecher descend- 
ent, Mrs. John Kuecher, to Richard Hagen February 8, 1955, prima- 
rily concerning chairs which had come from the Lincoln law of- 
fice, states that Robert Watson Kuecher owned one of the law 
office chairs, but does not mention any other Lincoln items owned 
by Robert. 

The present location of the majority of the Lincoln items owned 
by Robert Watson Kuecher is unknown. He gave a desk and chair 
(with a history of having come from the law office) to an actor 



140 



friend, Pat O'Brien, in 1942. Note that Kuecher in his affidavit 
mentions only a desk in his sister's home. 

Several items were sold to John Valentine, then to King Hostick, 
from whom Lincoln College in 1957 acquired a china pen wiper, 
metal lantern, English china plate, and a carving set (marked J. 
A. Henckel's Works, Solingen, Germany). The lantern is mentioned 
in the 1962 R.W. Kuecher affidavit. 

Although there does seem to be an absence of confirming informa- 
tion for Robert Watson Kuecher's affidavit, it should not be en- 
tirely disregarded. The affidavit provides the only available 
hint as to the contents of the maid's room. Robert Watson Kue- 
cher lists a "white toilet set" which probably refers to an 
ironstone chamber set and there is archeological evidence of the 
use of white ironstone at the home during the Lincoln residence. 

VANITY: 

Vanity (Illinois State Historical Society, L.R. 172) 
The Illinois State Historical Society also owns a small mirror 
on stand (a vanity) which belonged to Mary Lincoln. It was will- 
ed to the Library in 1954 by Minnie Smith Johnson, Mrs. Lincoln's 
niece. The vanity was reportedly given to Minnie's mother, Mrs. 
CM. Smith by her sister, Mary Todd Lincoln. 



141 



DRUGS AND TOILETRIES: 

The following items are drugs and toiletries purchased by Lincoln, 

from Corneau & Diller, Springfield, 111., 1855-1860, which might 

102 
have been found in the bedrooms, in and on bureaus. 

1855 

Feb. 15 Castor Oil .10 

Calomel .10 .20 

Mar. 3 



Mar. 


7 


June 


29 


July 


3 


Sept, 


, 1 


Sept 


. 15 


Oct. 


4 


Oct. 


31 


1856 


Oct. 


11 


1857 


Oct. 


8 


Oct. 


26 


Nov. 


2 



Pearl Powder 


.25 




Woods Restorative 


1.00 


1.25 


Bottle Lubins Extract 




.75 


Bottle Vermifuge 




.25 


Castor Oil 




.15 


Box Pills 




.25 


Box Lubins Extract 


.75 




Box Ox Marrow 


.40 


1.15 



3 Sticks Cough Candy .25 

Bottle Liniment .20 

Dose Pills .15 

Bottle Carminative .25 

1 oz. Syrup Ipecac . 15 

1 oz. Syrup Ipecac .15 



142 



1.00 




.50 




1.50 


3.00 




.25 


.25 




.25 


.50 



1858 
Aug. 9 Adhesive Plaster .10 

1859 

Jan. 27 Lubins Extract 

2 Cakes Soap 
Hair Brush 

Feb. 14 Bottle Castor Oil 

Feb. 18 Br. Mixture 
Cough Candy 

May 13 2 Bottles Extract for 

Handkerchiefs 1.50 

1 Bottle Spirits of Camphor .75 
1 Bottle Bay Rum .50 

3 Cakes Soap .50 
Magnesia .10 3.35 

May 21 Bottle Allen's Restorative 
Bottle Pomatum 
Bottle Cologne 

Bottle Extract for 
Handkerchiefs 



June 


27 


Tri pol i 


Aug. 


6 


Toilet Soap 
Toilet Powder 


Aug. 


13 


Honey Soap 
Hair Balsam 


Sept 


. 6 


Bottle Lubins Extract 
1 pt. Spirits of Camphor 
1 oz. Glycerine 



1.50 

.25 

1.00 




.75 


3.50 




.15 


1.35 
.15- 


1.50 


.60 
.40 


1.00 


1.00 
.35 
.25 


1.85 



Sept. 10 Box Wright's Pills .25 



143 



1860 



May 


30 


Bottle Allen's Restorative 


1.50 








2 Bottles Hair Balsam 


.80 


2.30 


Oct. 


12 


Woods Restorative 

Lubins Extract 

Cocaine 

Box Powder 

(?) .25 


1.00 

1.00 

.50 

.15 

2.90 




Nov. 


10 


Box Allen's Restorative 


1.00 








Bottle Hair Balsam 


.40 


1.40 



$40.95 



FABRIC PURCHASES 

(Only those which may have been intended as draperies or bedding 

are included. See also pp. 98 and 118.) 

Fabric purchases made by the Lincolns in Springfield from John 

103 
Williams & Co. : 



Mar. 31, 1857 5 yds. Drilling P .12J§ $ .63 

13*2 yds. Muslin @ .10 $ 1.35 

Apr. 16, 1857 16 lbs. Batting @ .18 3/4, 

Per Lady $ 3.00 

10Js yds. French Chintz, 

Per Lady $ 3.00 

May 19, 1857 36 yds. Buff Linen (a .25 $ 9.00 

May 20, 1857 Linen Returned 

May 20, 1857 36 yds. Cotton Damask (a 

.30, Per Lady $10.00 

Two scraps of fabric in the Oldroyd Collection, Ford's Theatre, 

Washington, D. C, are reportedly from the Lincoln home. One is 



144 



a piece of gold and white cotton with a fruit and leaf design 
woven in white, possibly a piece of Marseilles quilt (FOTH 3485). 
The other is a printed cotton chintz (FOTH 3482). Both of these 
scraps correspond to purchases made by the Lincolns. According 
to their catalogue cards, both scraps were from bedspreads. The 
catalogue card also notes that these scraps were given to the 
Oldroyd Collection by a Mrs. Denkle of Springfield who acquired 
them from Mrs. Lincoln. Although this provenance cannot be con- 
firmed, it is likely that these fabric scraps were from the Lin- 
coln home. 

FLOOR COVERINGS 

The Leslie's Illustrated drawings of the sitting room and front 
and back parlors show wall-to-wall floral carpeting and hearth 
rugs in each room. The Lincolns' store accounts in Springfield 
show only one carpet-related purchase: On April 12, 1851, Mrs. 
Lincoln bought one piece of carpet binding for $.31. A letter 

from Lincoln to the J.C. Louderman Company, however, reveals that 
the Lincolns purchased carpeting in St. Louis on at least one 
occasion and may have purchased all their carpeting in St. Louis. 
St. Louis, a larger, older city than Springfield, had a greater 
variety of carpets as well as a more fashionable selection. Sev- 
eral St. Louis establishments frequently placed advertisements in 



145 



the Springfield papers to draw mail order customers, such as Mr, 
Lincoln. Mr. Lincoln wrote: 



Springfield, Illinois 
March 14, 1852 



Gentlemen 



Mr. Binn has returned to Springfield, saying 
he took the sample of our carpet to you, and 
afterwards forgot to give the matter further 
attention. He also says he handed you your 
own letter to us, with a memorandum of mine at 
the bottom of it. I must now ask the favor of 
you to send us back the sample, (as, to lose 
it, will spoil the carpet we have) and with 
it, if it matches the quantity, or number of 
yards (35, I believe) of the new, mentioned in 
the memorandum. The expense, at all events, 
and the price of the new carpet, if it matches 
and you send it, I will pay promptly to your 
order - and shall feel under^great obligation 
besides, \lery respectfully. 

A. Lincoln 



Strip carpeting at mid-century was usually 27 inches wide; there- 
fore, 35 yards would be enough for one room of a size approxi- 
mately 240 square feet. 

The rear parlor measures 232 square feet, so the carpet may have 
been intended to match the carpet in the front parlor. 

When the Lincolns moved to Washington in 1861, one of the house- 
hold items they advertised for sale was carpeting. S.H. Melvin, 
according to his bill of sale signed by A. Lincoln, bought 9^ 



146 



yards of stair carpet at the Lincoln auction. (See p. 45 for 
complete bill of sale.) Another purchaser at the auction was 
Allen Miller who bought a "plush" hearth rug from the Lincolns. 
This hearth rug eventually became a part of the Lincoln Memorial 
Collection, but its location is now unknown. 

WALLPAPER 

The following is a list of the Lincolns 1 known wallpaper pur- 
chases from several Springfield stores. These purchases show 
that major papering took place at approximately four-year inter- 
vals with patching occurring in between. 

John Wil liams & Co. 



Apr. 24, 1851 34 Pieces Wallpaper .45 $15.30 

6 Pieces Border @ .50 $ 3.00 



Irwin Journal 



Jan. 1, 1852 2 Pieces of Border 

John Williams & Co. 

Mar. 7, 1853 1 Piece Velvet Paper Border $ 1.50 

Mar. 8, 1853 1 Piece Velvet Paper Border 

Returned $ 1.50 

Mar. 15, 1853 1 Piece Wallpaper $ .45 



147 



July 6, 1855 12 Pieces Wallpaper .40 $ 4.00 

14 Pieces Wallpaper .40 $ 5.60 

4 Pieces Wallpaper @ .37^ $1.50 

6 Pieces Border @ .75 $ 4.50 

2 Pieces Border (? .25 $ . 50 

4 Pieces Wallpaper @ .37 $ 1.50 

May 10, 1856 5 Pieces Wallpaper @ .37^ $ 1.88 

6 Pieces Wallpaper @ .37^ $ 2.25 

2 Pieces Border @ .50 $ 1.00 

2 Pieces Wallpaper .37^ $ .75 

Aug. 5, 1859 Lincoln wrote a $92.66 check 

to "Ruckel & Johns," dealers ,«« 
in wallpaper, paint and glass. 



Wallpaper in the parlors and sitting room may be seen in the 1861 
drawings from Lesl ie's , but the patterns are indistinct. Pat- 
terns in the dining room and back parlor are more clear in the 

109 
1865 stereoscope views. A 1912 photograph of Mr. Lincoln's 

bedroom (from the Robert Ide Collection, Illinois State Histori- 
cal Library) is the earliest view of what is believed to be the 
original wallpaper in Lincoln's bedroom, a piece of which remains 
on the wall today. In this view, the original paper is par- 

tially covered by a dado and border. 

The 1861 drawings show the general appearance of the papers for 
the parlors and sitting room. They are not detailed enough to 
provide the design for reproductions. They show enough of the 
overall pattern, however, that a period paper with the same de- 
sign characteristics could be located and reproduced. 



148 



The stereoscope views of the Lincoln back parlor and the dining 
room were taken after Lincoln's death in 1865. At that time, the 
Tiltons were renting the Lincoln home. Both views clearly in- 
dicate the wallpaper patterns. It is possible that the wallpaper 
shown in these views was put on the walls by the Lincolns. 

Two early references to the wallpaper in Lincoln's bedroom con- 
firm it as original to the Lincoln home. An article on Lincoln's 
home in The National Picket (July 1891) by Lida Oldroyd describes 
this paper, "On the wall of this room [Lincoln's bedroom] is the 
original paper, and very peculiar looking paper it is; it would 
be difficult to describe, and the name I should apply would be 
Dolly Varden, the figures are so large and the colors so gaudy." 
The Souvenir Supplement of the Illinois State Journal for 1892 

stated that two rooms were "papered just as the Lincoln family 

112 
left them...." There is nothing about the design of the paper 

to contradict these statements. 



149 



FOOTNOTES TO SECTION D 



1. Charles Carleton Coffin account, May, 1860, in 
the Boston Journal quoted in Paul Angle, ed., The Lincoln Reader , 
pp. 278-280. 



2. Springfield Republican , May 23, 1860, quoted in 
Bearss, Historic Structure Report, p. 22. 



3. New York Evening Post , May 23, 1860, quoted in 
Scott, "Lincoln's Home in 1860," p. 8. 



4. New York Commercial Advertiser , May 25; the New 
York Evening Post , May 26; and the New York Sun , May 30, and 
June 9, 1860, quoted in Bearss, Historic Structure Report , 
p. 23. 



5. "An Evening with Lincoln," the New York Semi - 
Weekly of July 6, 1860, quoted in Lincoln Lore , No. 845, 
Fort Wayne, Indiana, June 18, 1945. 



6. New York Herald , June 26, 1860, quoted in Bearss, 
Historic Structure Report , p. 25. 



7. New York Herald , August 13, 1860, quoted in 
Bearss, Historic Structure Report , pp. 26-27. 



8. Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , November 17, 
1860 quoted in Bearss, Historic Structure Report , pp. 27-28. 



9. Frank Leslie's Illustrated Weekly , March 9, 1861, 
quoted in Bearss, Historic Structure Report , p. 28. 



10. Chicago Tribune , May 6, 1865, quoted in Bearss, 
Historic Structure Report , p. 31. 



150 



11. Unidentified newspaper article, February 18, 1867, 
quoted in Kenneth Scott, "Lincoln's Home in 1860," Journal of 
the Illinois State Historical Society , XLVI, month/year no. 1, 
p. 12. 



12. J. S. Bliss to W. H. Herndon, January 29, 1867, 
Herndon-Weik Collection. 



13. Koerner, Memoirs , II, pp. 93-95. 



14. Angle, ed., Abraham Lincoln by Some Men Who Knew 
Him , "Recollections of Judge Franklin Blades," p. 121. 



15. Chicago Tribune , May 6, 1865, quoted Bearss, 
Historic Structure Report . 



16. Ibid 



17. J. S. Bliss to William Herndon, January 29, 1867, 
Herndon-Weik Collection, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 



18. Ibid 

19. Ibid, 

20. Ibid 

21. Ibid 

22. Ibid 



23. By editorial correspondent of The Utica Morning 
Herald , letter dated Springfield, Illinois, June 21, 1860, 
and reprinted in The New York Semi-Weekly of July 6, 1860, 
under caption "An Evening with Lincoln." 



151 



24. Ibid. 

25. Ibid. 

26. Chicago Tribune , May 6, 1865, 



27. New York Evening Post , May 23, 1860, quoted in 
Kenneth Scott "Lincoln's Home in 1860," The Journal of the 
Illinois State Historical Society , XLVI, no. 1 (Spring, 1953), 
pp. 7-12. 



28. Memoirs of Gustave K oerner , 1809-1896, II (Cedar 
Rapids: The Torch Press, 1909), pp. 93-95. 



29. Ibid 



30. Charles Carleton Coffin, account, May, 1860, 
in the Boston Journal quoted in Paul Angle, ed., The Lincoln 
Reader , pp. 278-280. 



31. Ibid. 

32. Chicago Tribune , May 6, 1865. 



33. Ibid.; See also Paul M. Angle, ed., Abraham 
Lincoln by Some Men Who Knew Him , "Recollections of Judge 
Franklin Blades," p. 121. 



34. Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , November 17, 
1860, quoted in Bearss, Historic Structure Report , pp. 27-28. 



35. Advertisement for Public Sale, Illinois State 
Journal , January 29, 1861. 



152 



36. Melvin bill of sale, Journal of the Illinois 
State Historical Society , (JISHS) XLIV, no. 1 (Spring, 1961), 
pp. 61-63. 



37. See Bearss, Historic Structure Report , plates 
II, III, IV, V, VI. 



38. William Waud ( ? -1878) was a noted illustrator 
for Leslie's Illustrated Weekly and Harpers Weekly during the 
Civil War. 



39. Rufus Wilson, What Lincoln Read (Washington, D.C., 
1932), p. 59. 



40. Turner, Mary Todd Lincoln , p. 67. 



41. Katherine Helm, Mary, Wife of Lincoln (New York 
Harper Brothers, 1928), p. 134. 



42. The original papers, affidavits, etc. are located 
at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Harrisburq, Pennsyl - 
v ania . Copies may be found at the Illinois State Historical 
Society Library. 



43. Stan V. Henkels, Catalogue No. 731: The Valu - 
able Collection of Autographs and Historical Papers Collected 
by The Hon. James T. Mitchell also The Entire Lincoln Memorial 
Collection of Chicago, Illinois (Philadelphia, 1894). 



44. Ellen Kirven Donald, Furniture from the Col - 
lection of the Lincoln Home National Historic Site (Harpers 
Ferry Center, National Park Service, Harpers Ferry, West 
Virginia, June, 1978), Items 3-8. 



45. Melvin bill of sale, JISHS , pp. 61-63. 



153 



46. Robert Bishop, Centuries and Styles of The Amer - 
ican Chair 1640-1970 (New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1972), 
pp. 390-391. A set of chairs in the style of LIHO 28 (a Cot- 
tage style, factory-made, cane-seated chair, which has a Lin- 
coln history) is another alternative for dining room chairs. 
However, they have not been recommended because the evidence 
of Lincoln provenance is not as strong as the Oldroyd's docu- 
mentation for the fancy chair. There is also a possibility 
that chairs in the style of chair No. 28 were not available 
at the time the Lincolns lived in Springfield. These chairs 
were factory made, inexpensive and very popular during the 
1870s. The earliest suggested date for this style is 1865. 
Although dating according to style is not conclusive, until 
further evidence becomes available, these chairs should not 
be exhibited in the Lincoln Home. 



47. See Bearss, Historic Structure Report , plate VIII 



48. Charles H. Coe, A Descriptive and Historical 
Catalogue of the Oldroyd Lincoln Memorial Collection (1896) 
from the collection of the Lincoln Museum, Ford's Theater, 
National Historic Site, National Park Service, Washington, D.C, 



49. "An Interview with Oldroyd," quoted in file on 
Lincoln furniture from The Lincoln Home files, The Illinois 
State Historical Society Library, Springfield, Illinois. 



50. Dana J. Blackwell, Chief Engineer, Clock Divi- 
sion, Howard Clock Products, Inc., to Chester V. Hamilton, 
Acting Superintendent, Lincoln Home, National Historical 
Society, August 18, 1975, Accession File No. 1, LIHO. 



51. E. Howard and Co., Illustrated Catalogue of Clocks 
(Boston, 1874), nos. 11-14. 



52. "Chairs Used by the Lincolns," Lincoln Lore 
(no. 1318), July 12, 1954. 



53. William Waud Collection, Division of Prints and 
Photographs, The Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 



154 



54. A girandole is an ornamental branched candle- 
holder, usually in sets, with marble bases, used as mantel 
garniture. See Ethel Doane, Antiques Dictionary (Portland, 
Maine: 1949); Donald Cowie, Antique Collector's Dictionary 
(N. Y.: Arco Press, 1963); and Webster's Third New Interna - 
tional Dictionary of the English" Language Unabridged (1976), 



55. The affidavit was not located at the time of 
this report although it is mentioned in a letter written by 
the appraiser of artifacts, Frances S. Ridgely, found in 
Accession File No. 1. 



56. See Bearss, Historic Structure Report , plate II 



57. Mary Lincoln to Julia Ann Sprigg, May 29, 1862, 
in Justin G. Turner and Linda Levitt Turner, Mary Todd: Her 
Life and Letters (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1972), pp. 127- 
128. 



58. Coe, Descriptive Catalogue , sofa no. 2, 

59. Ibid. , sofa, no. 3. 



60. Mary Lincoln to Julia Ann Sprigg May 29, 1862, 
in Turner, Mary Todd , pp. 127-128. 



61. A "couch" at mid-century referred to an elaborate 
daybed or lounge. 



62. Henkels, Catalogue No. 731 , no. 1592. 



63. J. M. Forden affidavit, Lincoln Memorial Collec- 
tion, The Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 



64. See Accession No. 23, list of shards by Ruthanne 
Heriot, and Richard Hagen, "Backyard Archeology," Journal of the 
Illinois State Historical Society , LIV, no. 4 (Winter, 1951). 



155 



65. The origin of this soap dish was not noted on 
the catalogue card and no information was found in the acces- 
sion file. However, a letter from Richard Hagen in the Lincoln 
Home file, Illinois State Historical Society Library, dated 
July 1, 1953 to a donor of tea leaf china, Mrs. Naomi Koell- 
ing, says that the mark on her china, Alfred Meakin, England, 
with shield, is identical to a mark on china dug up in the 
Lincoln backyard. According to James Hickey, Richard Hagen 
was aware that the tea leaf ironstone was not from the 1850s. 
He accepted it because of the enthusiasm of the organization 
that was donating it. 



66. Geoffry A. Godden, Encyclopedia of British Pottery 
and Porcelain Marks (New York: Crown Publishers, 1964), p. 425. 



67. Photo of toothbrush taken in 1951, excavated from 
backyard, Lincoln Home Files, Illinois State Historical Society 
Library. 



68. See Accession No. 23, list of shards by Ruth- 
anne Heriot, and Richard Hagen, "Backyard Archeology," JISHS 



69. This information was compiled from the accession 
files at the Chicago Historical Society, Clark Street at 



North Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60614. 



70. "Lincoln Heirlooms Found in Capital , " Chicago 
Daily News , Tuesday, June 30, 1953. 



71. Accession File No. 1921.7, Chicago Historical 
Society, Chicago, Illinois. 



72. Harry E. Pratt, The Personal Finances of Abraham 
Lincoln , Springfield, Illinois (The Abraham Lincoln Association, 
1943), pp. 145-159. 



73. Zane, "Lincoln As I Knew Him," JISHS. 



156 



74. Godden, Encyclopedia of Pottery , p. 150. 



75. Robert Todd Lincoln to Samuel Willard, March 22, 
1909, Chicago Historical Society, quoted in Ruth Painter Randall, 
Mary Lincoln: Biography of a Marriage (Boston: Little, Brown, & 
Co., 1953), p. 107. 



76. Accession File no. 1927.2, Chicago Historical 
Society, Chicago, Illinois. 



77. Ibid., Accession no. 1920/683, a. b 



78. Dr. Lattimer to Ms. Mary Ellen McElligott, 
October 16, 1973, Lincoln Home file, Illinois State His- 
torical Society Library. 



79. Interview with James Hickey, Curator of Lincoln 
Artifacts, Illinois State Historical Society Library, March 12, 
1979. According to Mr. Hickey, Margaret Sinninger was a wery 
good friend of Robert Lincoln. 



80. Coe, Descriptive Catalogue , No. 9. 



81. According to James Hickey, there is a cupboard 
in the Old State Capitol in Springfield that came from William 
Herndon. It probably was in the Lincoln-Herndon law office but 
could have been in the Lincoln home first. 



82. According to the Lincoln scholar James Hickey, 
there is some doubt as to whether or not Maria Vance was a 
cook in the the Lincoln household (James Hickey Interview, 
May 12, 1979). 



83. Pratt, Personal Finances , pp. 145-159 



157 



84. William E. Baringer, Lincoln Day by Day : 
A Chronology 1809-1865 (Washington, D. C. , Lincoln Sesqui- 
centennial Commission, 1960). 



85. Bearss, Historic Structure Report , plates IV, 
V, and VI. 



86. Waud Collection, Library of Congress. 

87. Bearss, Historic Structure Report , pp. 39 
and 105. 

88. Pratt, P ersonal Finances , p. 92. 



89. The information on Bishop Seymour and the 
Cantrells was compiled by Dr. Wayne Temple, Illinois State 
Archives, Springfield, Illinois. 



90. Mrs. Seymour to Mr. Graham, undated, owned 
by the Evans Cantrell family, 1020 Bismarck Way, Oxnard, 
Cal ifornia. 



91. Memo by Virginia Stuart Brown, March 5, 1951, 
Lincoln Home files, Illinois State Historical Society Library, 



92. Lincoln Home files, Illinois State Historical 
Society Library. 



93. Mary Clay McClinton, "Robert Wilson, Kentucky 
Cabinetmaker," Antiques Magazine (May 1973), pp. 945-949. 



94. Lincoln Memorial Collection. Original papers 
located at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 



158 



95. Henkels, Catalogue No. 731 , no. 1602. 



96. Mrs. Elizabeth Ashmead to C. F. Gunther, 1894, 
Accession File no. XA-96, Chicago Historical Society. 



97. Ibid 



98. Coe, Descriptive Catalogue , Cradle. According to 
James Hickey, Robert Todd Lincoln did not believe this cradle was 
the family cradle. According to Robert Lincoln, the cradle was 
disposed of when the boys were small. Robert's recollections are, 
however, somewhat effected by his dislike of Oldroyd and Oldroyd's 
care of the house. 



99. Mary Lincoln to Julia Ann Sprigg, May 29, 1862, in 
Turner, Mary Todd Lincoln , pp. 127-128. 



100. Henkels, Catalogue No. 731 , no. 1612. 



101. These artifacts dre in the Collection of Lincoln 
College, Lincoln, Illinois, along with other artifacts which 
have a history of having come from the Lincoln home through the 
Kuecher family; see Appendix IV. 



102. The following information was taken from Pratt, 
Personal Finances , pp. 145-159. 



103. Ibid 

104. Ibid 



105. Roy P. Basler, The Collected Works of Abraham 
Lincoln (New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1953), II, 
p. 120. 



159 



106. See Miller affidavit by Lafayette Smith, 
April 10, 1886, Lincoln Memorial Collection Papers, His- 
torical Society of Pennsylvania. 



107. Pratt, Personal Finances , pp. 145-159. 

108. Baringer, Lincoln Day By Day , p. 257. 

109. Bearss, Historic Structure Report , plates II 
and III. 

110. Ibid., plate XII. 



111. Lida Oldroyd, in The National Picket , I, no. 1 
(1891), pp. 7-8. 



112. "Springfield in 1892:Souvenir Supplement," 
Illinois State Historical Society Journal (Springfield, 
1892) quoted in Bearss, Historic Structure Report , p. 51. 



160 



THE PLAN 

SECTION E: RECOMMENDED FURNISHINGS 

Both the Leslie's Illustrated drawings and the surviving original 
Lincoln furniture show the Lincoln Home furnishings to be excel- 
lent examples of solid middle-class household goods at mid-cen- 
tury. Caroline Owsley Brown, in "Springfield Society Before the 
Civil War," described the furnishings of the more fashionable 
houses in Springfield: 

Many of the houses were furnished yery hand- 
somely, with velvet carpets, damask and lace 
curtains with silk brocatelle, and the tables 
boasted gold banded china and solid silver and 
almost everyone kept their own carriage. 

The Lincoln house was furnished similarly but with slightly less 

expensive items. For example, Mrs. Lincoln purchased cotton 

damask for draperies rather than silk and the parlor furniture 

was mahogany and walnut rather than the more expensive rosewood. 

The Lincoln furnishings in Springfield were not the most up-to- 
date styles; however, they were reflective of the major decora- 
tive trends at that time. The house contained a variety of late 
Empire style, Gothic, Rococo Revival, and Cottage style furni- 
ture. Some furniture appears to have been locally made while 
other furniture is characteristic of the early factory furniture 
exported from the east and larger urban centers, such as Cincin- 



161 



nati and St. Louis. For example, J. A. Hough advertised in the 

Illinois Daily Journal , May 11, 1849: 

Cabinet Warehouse—Cabinet Furniture, Chairs, 
Looking-Glass Plates, Mattresses, Willow Wag- 
ons, Clocks, etc., etc. of^ New York, Boston, 
and Cincinnati Manufacture. 

Although Lincoln was able to purchase eastern furniture in Spring- 
field, the selection would have been better in St. Louis or 
Cincinnati. Lincoln purchased carpeting in St. Louis and it is 
logical to assume he purchased other furnishings there as well. 
Indeed, according to advertisements by Springfield cabinetmakers, 
St. Louis cabinetmaking establishments were considered competi- 
tion. For example, an advertisement by J. Hutchinson, January 2, 
1850, in the Springfield Illinois Daily Journal read: 

The extensive Warerooms of the establishment 
will always be supplied with a large stock of 
FURNITURE, consisting in part of Sofas, Secre- 
taries, Bookcases, Centre and side Tables, 
Work and Card Tables, Sideboards, Dressing 
Bureaus, Common Bureaus, Cupboards, Wardrobes, 
Presses, High-Post, French and Common Bed- 
steads, Lounges, Washstands, Chairs, Cribs, 
and Cradles, &c. &c &c: and in order that the 
public may have a full and fair opportunity of 
judging for themselves, between our own manu- 
factured articles and those from abroad, we 
further invite their attention to the follow- 
ing articles, just received from the eastern 
markets, viz: 

Mahogany Centre Tables Plain and Tufted Sofas 

Cherry Card do. Fancy Divans 

Dressing Bureaus, Mahogany Wash Stands, 

Common do. Plain do. 

Mahogany Toilet Stands, O.G. Pillar Card Tables, 

Common do. Rocking Chairs, &c. &c. 



162 



The patronage of the public generally is re- 
spectfully solicited, and all who visit this 
\jery extensive establishment will be made sat- 
isfied that it richly merits the confidence 
and support of an intelligent and judicious 
community, who appreciate the importance of 
encouraging Home Manufactures, and building up 
our own region of country, instead of furnish- 
ing our means to add to the wealth of St. 
Louis, Cincinnati, and the eastern cities. 
J. HUTCHINSON. 

Another advertisement in 1857 showed that J. Hutchinson was still 

concerned with the competition from St. Louis. It read: 

I have also made arrangements for a constant 
supply of Eastern work. ... Persons wishing to 
fill orders can do so at as reasonable terms 
as St. Louis or any other western city. 

Thus the Lincoln home would most likely have contained furniture 
from Springfield and other cities. Locally manufactured furni- 
ture was made of native woods and in a variety of styles. In 
central Illinois, furniture was made of walnut, cherry, ash, and 
sycamore; and in northwest Illinois of maple, oak, birch, or 
pine. Betty Madden in Arts, Crafts, and Architecture in Early 
II linois (Urbana, Chicago, London: University of Illinois Press, 
1974) illustrates numerous examples of this Illinois-made furni- 
ture. 

Section E of this Furnishing Plan is based on the surviving orig- 
inal Lincoln furnishings and period documentation. Where it has 
been necessary to fill in additional furniture, items have been 



163 



added that correspond to the tastes reflected in the original 
furnishings. Placement and quantities of furniture are based 
largely on the Lesl ie's drawings, other period illustrations, 
such as paintings and prints, and household guidebooks — in par- 
ticular Miss Leslie's Lady's House Book (Philadelphia, 1846), a 
copy of which Mrs. Lincoln owned. Miss Leslie's was a very pop- 
ular household manual . 

Although there do not seem to be many surviving records of the 
1952-1955 restoration, refurnishing was comprehensive, and the 
majority of the furnishings now in the house are of an appropri- 
ate date and style for the Lincoln Home. Over the years, how- 
ever, additional items have been acquired and in almost every 
room, according to recent research on furnishings, there are too 
many items. The changes recommended by this report will mean the 
elimination of many items. 

PARLORS: INTRODUCTION 

The Lincolns' front parlor was used primarily for the family's 
more formal entertaining. (See pp. 17-25 for accounts of the 
Lincolns' parties.) If it were a large gathering, both the front 
and back parlors would have been in use. The front parlor, how- 
ever, contained the more formal, elegant furniture. In the Les - 
lie's drawing, furniture in both the late Empire and Rococo Re- 



164 



vival style can be seen. In the rear parlor, there is little 
evidence of the more fashionable Rococo Revival style. The sofa, 
secretary, and chairs reflect the late Empire style, and the side 
tables are in the Cottage style or "Elizabethan" style. 

Contemporary accounts referred to the back parlor as the "Li- 
brary." A secretary-desk appears in the Leslie's drawing of this 
room. It is likely that when Lincoln worked at home or enter- 
tained business friends he used this room. 

FRONT PARLOR: ROOM A 

See p. 304, for Summary of Furnishings and Cost Estimates. 

Object : Sofa A.l 

Date : 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Transitional between late Empire and Rococo 
style, with tufted horsehair upholstery. 
Location : South wall 

Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper March 9, 1861. 

The sofa which appears in the drawing is now at the Chicago His- 
torical Society; however, this sofa (LIHO 1060) which also has a 
Lincoln history, although not as strong as the Chicago one, is 
similar enough to the drawing to be appropriate. (See pp. 69-71 
for a discussion of these sofas.) 
Source: LIHO 1060. 



165 



FRONT PARLOR: ROOM A 

Object : Side Chairs, four (of a set of six) A. 2-5 

Date : 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Four matching side chairs, mahogany, late Em- 
pire style, curved crest rail, vase shaped splat, slip seats, 
horsehair upholstery. 

Location : One under each of the windows and one on 

either side of the whatnot on north wall to the east of the 
stove. 

Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861; 

LIHO 1119 through 1124 are well documented surviving pieces of 
furniture (Lincoln Memorial Collection) originally owned by the 
Lincolns in Springfield. (See pp. 53-55 for provenance.) Five 
of the six chairs appear in the Lesl ie's drawings. It is logical 
to assume the sixth chair was placed in a location not visible in 
the drawings. 
Source : LIHO 1116, 1117, 1118, 1119. 

Object : Rocking Chair A. 6 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Upholstered, arm rocker with carved floral 

motif on crest rail, tufted horsehair upholstery. 

Location : Southwest side of fireplace. 



166 



FRONT PARLOR: ROOM A 

Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861, 

A mahogany, black haircloth rocking chair from the Lincoln home 
was once part of the Oldroyd Collection. It is now missing. 
(See p. 59 for complete discussion of provenance.) There are 
several other rocking chairs with a Lincoln history of ownership; 
however, their Lincoln provenance is not as strong as the Oldroyd 
one (see pp. 55-57, 79 through 86). 
Source : LIHO 19. 

Object : Footstool A. 7 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Small footstool on four turned legs, with 

horsehair upholstery. 

Location : Southwest side of fireplace. 

Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1961. 

Source : LIHO 39. 

Object : Rocking Chair A. 8 

Date : 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Identical to the above chair with the excep- 
tion that the rocker has open arms with horsehair-covered, padded 
armrests and does not have tufted upholstery. 



167 



FRONT PARLOR: ROOM A 

Location : Northeast corner of room. 

Documentation : Same as above. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Footstool A. 9 

Date : 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Small footstool with four turned legs, with 

horsehair upholstery. 

Location : Northeast corner of the room. 

Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861. 

Source : LIHO 65. 

Object : Mirror A. 10 

Date: 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Pier mirror, gilt, with rounded top, some ro- 
coco decoration on crest, about four feet tall. 
Location : Between front windows. 

Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861. 

Location of the original is unknown. 

Source : To be acquired (antique); LIHO 17, however, 

can be used until acquired. 



168 



FRONT PARLOR: ROOM A 

Object : Pier Table A. 11 

Date : 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Marble-topped serpentine front table with cab- 
riole legs and lower shelf. 

Location : Between front windows in north front parlor. 

Documentation : Appears in 1861 drawing of parlor in Lesl ie's 

Illustrated Newspaper . The original table, LIHO 1114, became 
part of the Lincoln Memorial Collection and is now at the Lincoln 
Home. (See pp. 72-73 for complete discussion of provenance.) 
Source : LIHO 1114. 

Object : Whatnot A. 12 

Date : 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Corner whatnot with five shelves, and machine- 
cut scroll work decoration. 
Location Northwest corner. 

Documentation : Appears in March 9, 1861 drawing of parlor in 

Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper . (See pp. 40-41 for a contempo- 
rary reference to "a whatnot in the corner of the room." The 
present location of the original corner whatnot is unknown, but 
LIHO 18 is appropriate and should be placed in this room.) 
Source: LIHO 18. 



169 



FRONT PARLOR: ROOM A 

O bject : Whatnot A. 13 

Date : 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Five shelves with spool turned supports and 
machine-cut scrollwork decoration on the back. 
Location : North wall to the east of fireplace. 

Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861. 

Whatnot, LIHO 24, has a history of Lincoln ownership, although it 
is not well documented. (See pp. 96-98 for its history. Also, 
see pp. 40-41 for contemporary written reference to a whatnot in 
the Lincoln parlor.) 
Source : LIHO 24. 

Object : Parlor Stove A. 14 

Date : 1855-1860 

Brief Description : Gothic style fancy parlor stove on cabriole 

legs. 

Location : North parlor fireplace. 

Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861. 

(See pp. 108-109 discussion of location of original stove.) 

Source: LIHO 174. 



170 



FRONT PARLOR: ROOM A 

Object : Stove Implements: Shovel, Tongs, A. 15 

Stand, Hearth Brush 

Date : 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Iron and brass shovel and tongs; wooden hearth 

brush. 

Location : Stove. 

Documentation : Period sources. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 



Object : Oval Picture A. 16 

Date : ca . 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Floral print in wooden ogee frame (lVxl 1 ) 

hung with picture cord and tassels; a floral design of wax, 

shells or flowers, or hair would be equally appropriate. 

Location : North wall, west of fireplace. 

Documentation : Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 

1861. Contemporary accounts mention "pictures" (for example, see 

pp. 35-36). 

Source: LIHO 168. 



Object : Pair of Prints, George and A. 17 

Martha Washington 

Date: ca . 1842-1850 



171 



FRONT PARLOR: ROOM A 

Brief Description : Prints in oval, gilt frames, with floral dec- 
oration at the top, hung from wall, ceiling height, with picture 
cord and tassels. 

Location : Over fireplace. 

Documentation : Two small oval pictures of figures are visi- 

ble in the March 9, 1861 Leslie's Illustrated drawing. The sub- 
ject matter is not visible. 
Source : LIHO 169 and 170. 

Object : Three Oval Pictures A. 18 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Three pictures of period subject matter in 

matching oval frames hung from nails, no cord showing. 

Location : Over whatnot on north wall. 

Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated New spaper, March 9, 1861. 

Center picture appears to have a figure subject. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Girandole A. 19 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Two single-arm candlesticks and one three- 
branch candlestick with glass prisms. 



172 



FRONT PARLOR: ROOM A 

Location : On the mantel . 

Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861. 

Two sets of girandoles have Lincoln histories of ownership. The 
set with the strongest Lincoln provenance (from the Herndon fami- 
ly, see pp. 64-65) consists of two single-arm candlesticks and 
one three-arm candlestick and would be appropriate for this room. 
Source : LIHO 150, 151, 152. 

Object : Pair of China Pitchers A. 20 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Two matching French porcelain pitchers with 

hand painted decorative scenes. 

Location : On the mantel . 

Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861. 

French china, popular at mid-century as a mantel garniture, was 

available in Springfield and in keeping with Mary Lincoln's 

tastes as later evidenced by her purchases in the White House. 

Source : LIHO 148 and 149. 

Items to be Located on the Pier Table : 

Top 

Object: Basket A. 21 



173 



FRONT PARLOR: ROOM A 

Date: ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : China with flower arrangement. 

Object : Vase A. 22 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Tall cut glass vase, to the east of the basket, 

Object : Decanter A. 23 

Date: ca . 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Glass decanter, in front of glass vase. 

Object : Two Small Ornaments A. 24 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Glass or china, appear to the west of the 

basket. 

Shelf 

Object : Two Glass Decanters A. 25 

Date: ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Pressed or blown three-mold glass. 



174 



FRONT PARLOR: ROOM A 

Object : Ornament A. 26 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : China. 

Documentation : The above items may be seen in the March 9, 

1861, Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper drawing. This sort of ar- 
rangement is also characteristic of mid-century garniture. The 
glassware should be a combination of cut, pressed, and Bohemian 
glass. 
Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Corner Whatnot Items, to be Asymmetrically Arranged : 

Object : Two Small Decanters A. 27 

Date : ca . 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Two small, blown glass decanters. 

Location : Lower shelves. 

Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861, 

drawing. 

Source : LIHO 135, 136. 

Object : Three Small Vases A. 28 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Three small glass or ceramic vases. 



175 



FRONT PARLOR: ROOM A 

Location : Lower shelves. 

Source : LIHO 153, 696, 697. 

Object : Two Bottles with Stoppers A. 29 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Two blown glass bottles with stoppers. 

Location : Lower shelves. 

Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861 

drawing. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Two Books A. 30 

Date : ca . 1840-1860 

Brief Description : To have ornamental bindings. 
Location : Middle shelf. 

Documentation : Books appear in the March 9, 1861, Lesl i e ' s 

Illustrated Newspaper drawing of the other whatnot and are typi- 
cal shelf garniture. (See book list, pp. 48-53, for titles owned 
by the Lincolns. ) 
Source: LIHO 936, 938. 



176 



FRONT PARLOR: ROOM A 

Object : Assortment of Seashells , A. 31 

including a Trochus 

L ocation : Lower shelf. 

Documentation : A contemporary account by the correspondent, 
J. S. Bliss (to Herndon, 1866), mentions seashells on corner what- 
not, and specifically mentions a trochus (see pp. 40-41 for full 
account) . 

Two seashells have a history of having come from the Lincoln home 
(see pp. 102-103). The tradition associated with them says they 
were used to hold down the draperies. They do not appear in the 
drawings and the draperies do not look long enough to fit under 
the shells. No documentation has been found to suggest this was 
a popular practice. A more logical use of these shells would be 
on the bottom shelf of the whatnot, with flowers arranged in 
them, a popular period practice. Conches, periwinkles, whelks, 
and scallops are among popular shells found in nineteenth-century 
collections. 
Source : LIHO 285-292. 

Object : Two China Ornaments A. 32 

Date : ca . 1840-1860 

Location : Top shelf. 



177 



FRONT PARLOR: ROOM A 

Documentation : Several indeterminate items appear on the top 

shelf in the March 9, 1861, Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper draw- 
ing and china ornaments would be appropriate. 
Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Five-Shel f Whatnot : 

Top Shelf 

Object : Vol k Bust of Lincoln A. 33 

Date : 1860 

Brief Description : Small plaster of Paris bust of Lincoln. 

Documentation : See p. 100 for discussion of documentation, 

and see Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861 drawing. 

Source : LIHO 134. A reproduction bust now located at 

the Lincoln Home is appropriate. 

Object : Four Decanters A. 34 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Pressed or blown glass. 

Documentation : See Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 

1861 drawing. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 



178 



FRONT PARLOR: ROOK A 

S econd Shelf 

Object : Two Busts A. 35 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

B rief Description : Parian ware busts and subjects should be 

figures Lincoln admired. 

Documentation : See Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 

1861 drawing. 

Source : LIHO 138, 137. 

Third Shelf 

Object : Three Books A. 36 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Three books with ornamental leather bindings. 

Documentation : See Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 

1861 drawing and the Lincoln book list pp. 48-53. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : One Statuette A. 37 

Date: ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Parian ware. 

Documentation : See Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 

1861 drawing. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 



179 



FRONT PARLOR: ROOM A 

Object : Vase A. 38 

Date: ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : One covered double-handled ceramic vase. 

Documentation : See Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 

1861 drawing. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

F ourth Shelf 

Object : Set of Five Books A. 39 

Dat e: ca . 1840-1860 

Brief Description : One set of five books (same size, height, bind- 
ing) with ornamental bindings. 

Documentation : See Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 

1861 drawing and the Lincoln book list on pp. 48-53. 
Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Fifth Shelf 

Object : Four Books A. 40 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Oversized, to be stacked vertically, with 

ornamental bindings. 



180 



FRONT PARLOR: ROOM A 

Do cumentation : See Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 

1861 drawing and see the Lincoln book list on pp. 48-53. 
Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Decanter A. 41 

Date : ca . 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Blown or pressed glass. 

Documentation : See Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 

1861 drawing. 

Source : LIHO 161. 

REAR PARLOR: ROOM B 

See p. 308 for Summary of Furnishings and Cost Estimates. 

Object : Side Tables B. 1-2 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Elizabethan style, pair of side tables with 

spool turned supports and lower shelf. 

Location : East corners of rear parlor. 

Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861. 

Source : LIHO 3 and 4 (reproductions). 

Object : Pair of Globes B.3-4 

Date: ca. 1850-1860 



181 



REAR PARLOR: ROOM B 

Brief Description : Celestial and terrestrial globes resting in 
short turned stands (for use on a table top). 

L ocation : One on each Elizabethan style side table. 
Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861. 
A contemporary account from the Boston Journal , May 1860, de- 
scribed "two globes, celestial and terrestrial, in the corners of 
the room. " (See p. 34. ) 
Source : LIHO 1 and 2. 

Objec t: Side Chairs, two (of a set of six) B. 5-6 

Date : 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Identical to those in the front parlor (see 
pp. 53-55), horsehair upholstery. 

Location : One in front of secretary and one in front of 
west window. (Five of the six chairs appear in the Lesl ie's 
drawings of the front and back parlors. In the back parlor, a 
side chair is on the west wall, south of the door, and in front 
of the window near the opening to the front parlor. In the case 
of the back parlor, however, the visitor traffic flow necessi- 
tates a slight rearrangement of the furniture and placement of 
the chairs in front of the window; the secretary, west of the 
fireplace, is appropriate.) These chairs, from the Lincoln Memo- 



182 



REAR PARLOR: ROOM B 

rial Collection, have a wel 1 -documented Lincoln history of owner- 
ship (see pp. 53-55) . 
Source : LIHO 1120 and 1121. 

Object : Sofa B.7 

Date: 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Transitional style between late Empire and 
Rococo, serpentine back, outward framing arms and legs, uphol- 
stered with tufted back, in black horsehair. 
Location : East wall, between side tables. 

Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861, 

Several sofas have a Lincoln history of ownership (see pp. 68-72 
and pp. 92-93 for a discussion of their provenance.) LIHO 1059, 
a sofa from the Oldroyd Collection, now in the Lincoln Home, 
would be most appropriate in this location. 
Source : LIHO 1059. 

Object : Secretary-Desk B.8 

Date : 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Large secretary-desk and bookcase with glass 

fronted doors, six shelves, fold-out desk top, and paneled doors 



183 



REAR PARLOR: ROOM B 

enclosing shelves beneath desk, turned front legs and bracket 
rear legs. 

Location : Original location, according to March 9, 1861, 

Leslie's Illustrated drawing, was against the south wall now 
opening to front parlor. Visitor traffic prevents this place- 
ment; therefore, it should be placed against the south wall, on 
the other side of the door to the dining room. 

Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861. 

Several contemporary accounts mention that Lincoln's books were 
in this room, and two refer to his "bookcase." (See pp. 35, 38.) 
Source : LIHO 6. 

Object : Table B.9 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Round, mahogany veneered or walnut center 
table with pedestal base. 
Location : In front of fireplace. 

Documentation : A contemporary account written by a corre- 

spondent of the Boston Journal (May 1860) recorded that there 
was "a plain table with writing materials upon it, a pitcher of 
cold water, and glasses..." (see p. 34 for full account) in this 
room. 



184 



REAR PARLOR: ROOM B 

No table of this description appears in the Lesl ie's drawing. In 
fact, there is no center table in the drawing of any of the down- 
stairs rooms, which is unusual because the center table was a 
very common form at mid-century. For example, Andrew Jackson 
Downing, in his popular book on the Architecture of Country 

Houses , published in 1850, described the center table as "the 

5 
emblem of the family circle." 

It is logical to suppose that either the artist eliminated all 

furniture from the center of the rooms or the Lincolns removed 

furniture to accommodate the large numbers of visitors they began 

to receive after Mr. Lincoln's election. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Girandole B.10 

Date: 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Two single-arm candlesticks and one three- 
branch candlestick, with hanging prisms. 
Location : On the mantel . 

Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861. 

The girandoles shown in the drawings of the front and back parlor 
have the same general appearance and were probably similar, if 
not identical. There are two documented sets of candelabra with 



185 



REAR PARLOR: ROOM B 

histories of having come from the Lincoln home (see pp. 64-65), 
although only one of these sets is now in the Lincoln Home Col- 
lection. 
Source LIHO 378, 379, and 380. 

Object : Pair of Pitchers B. 11-12 

Date: ca . 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Porcelain, French (or English) with painted 

decoration. 

Location : On the mantel . 

Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861, 

See also discussion under mantel garniture for the front parlor. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

SITTING ROOM: INTRODUCTION 

The sitting room served as the Lincoln family's everyday living 
area. The Leslie's illustration clearly shows that the sitting 
room contained less formal (and less expensive) furnishings than 
the parlors. For example, there is very little upholstered fur- 
niture in this room. Upholstered furniture, such as sofas and 
armchairs, were expensive luxuries and, in most families, would 



186 



customarily have been reserved for the parlors. And yet, this 
room, with its pair of rocking chairs, does seem comfortable. 

According to period use, the large table, appearing in the Les - 
lie's drawing on the east wall, would have been in the middle 
of the room. The family's activities, such as reading, playing 
checkers, and Mrs. Lincoln's sewing, would have taken place a- 
round the table and the light source located on the table. 



SITTING ROOM: ROOM C 

See p. 310 for Summary of Furnishings and Cost Estimates 



Object : Rocking Chairs, pair C. 1-2 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Cane seated rockers, Cottage style, with back 
consisting of a cane panel below four turned spindles and a curved 
crest rail, cabriole front legs, outward flaring rear legs. 
Location : In the south corners of the room. 

Documentation : A drawing made for Leslie's Illustrated News- 

paper . 1860-1861. (See also p. 81.) 

Source : A chair, matching those shown in the Lesl ie's 

drawing, is in the collection at The Oaks, the home of Booker T. 
Washington, Tuskegee, Alabama. The chair was given to Tuskegee 
Institute with a history of having come from the Lincoln home. 
There is no available documentation to support this provenance; 



187 



SITTING ROOM: ROOM C 

however, it is the only chair of this description with a Lincoln 
history. This chair should be reproduced and a pair placed in 
the sitting room. If possible, transfer of the rocker at The 
Oaks (which was not a part of the original furnishings while 
Booker T. Washington was alive) should be negotiated. LIHO 45 is 
appropriate until reproductions can be made, or a matching rocker 
for LIHO 45 found. 

Object : Side Chairs, set of three C. 3-4-5 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Flat sided cabriole front legs, canted rear 
legs, s-curved back with one horizontal splat; both splat and 
crest rail have decorative carving in the center, either cane 
seated or upholstered in striped fabric (cotton, linen, striped 
horsehair) . 

Location : One beneath west front window, one beneath 
the window on the south wall to the west of the fireplace, one 
on east wall south of the table. 

Documentation : A drawing made for Leslie's Illustrated News - 
paper , March 9, 1861. 
Source: LIHO 41, 42, and 53. 



188 



SITTING ROOM: ROOM C 

Object : Table C.6 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Large oval topped walnut table with cabriole 
legs and either scroll or claw and ball feet. 

Location : East wall (could occasionally be moved to 

center of room for family grouping as was typical of the mid- 
nineteenth century). 

Documentation : A drawing made for Leslie's Illustrated News - 

paper , March 9, 1861. This table may have been the one purchased 
from the Lincolns in 1861 by J.M. Forden (who also purchased a 
sewing table from this same room), described in an 1894 sales 
catalogue as an "antique walnut tete-a-tete table." (See p. 74 
for further discussion.) A "tete-a-tete" table was a table for 
conversation, designed to be placed free-standing in the middle 
of a room, more commonly referred to during the nineteenth cen- 
tury as a center table. The table shown in the Lesl ie's drawing 
is one of these conversation or center tables. 
Source : To be acquired (antique); LIHO 40 may be used 

temporarily. 

Object : Table Cover C.7 

Date: ca. 1850-1860 



189 



SITTING ROOM: ROOM C 

Brief Description : A rectangular table cover, of stenciled felt 
or wool . 

Location : Walnut table. 

Documentation : Period practice. Table covers were standard 

items at mid-century, particularly for center tables. Many peri- 
od prints and paintings illustrate these covers. For example see 
Harold Peterson's Americans at Home (New York: Charles Scribner 
and Sons, 1971). 
Source : To be acquired (antique or reproduction). 

Object : Sewing Table C.8 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Two-drawer pedestal stand on rectangular base 
with feet. 

Location : Between front windows. 

Documentation : A drawing of the sitting room made for Les - 

lie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861; a table of this de- 
scription now in the Lincoln Home (LIHO 1123) has a strong his- 
tory of Lincoln ownership (see pp. 73-74). 
Source: LIHO 1123. 



190 



SITTING ROOM: ROOM C 

Object : Ironwork Flower Stand C.9 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Wire basket with handles mounted on trestle 
style ornate wire supports. (See Plate III.) 

Location : Beneath window on south wall, east of fire- 
place. 

Documentation : Drawing made for Leslie's Illustrated Newspa - 
per , March 9, 1861. 

Source : To be acquired (antique or reproduction). 

Object : Large Painting or Print with a CIO 

Horse as part of subject 

Date : 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Painting or print with a horse subject in a 

large rectangular wooden gilt frame, approximately 2'x3', hung 

with picture cord, and tassels. 

Location : East wall, center. 

Documentation : Drawing made for Leslie's Illustrated Newspa - 

per, March 9, 1861. 

Source : LIHO 282. 

Object : Mirror C.ll 

Date: 1840-1860 



191 



SITTING ROOM: ROOM C 

Brief Description : Large rectangular mirror in gilt frame, ap- 
proximately 3VxlV. 

Location : West wall between windows. 

Documentation : Drawing made for Leslie's Illustrated Newspa - 

per , March 9, 1861; a mirror similar to this one now back in the 
Lincoln Home has a well documented history of Lincoln ownership 
(see pp. 65-66) . 
Source : LIHO 1115. 

Object : Girandole Set C.12 

Date : 1840-1860 

Brief Description : One five-arm candleholder and two single-arm 
candleholders, with hanging prisms. 

Location : Multi-arm candleholder in center of mantel 

with two single-arm candleholders at either end. 
Documentation : Drawing made for Leslie's Illustrated News - 

paper , March 9, 1861. (See pp. 64-65 for discussion of two sets 
of original Lincoln girandole.) 
Source : LIHO 263, 264, and 268. 

Object : Pair of Vases C.13 

Date: 1840-1860 



192 



SITTING ROOM: ROOM C 

Brief Description : Double-handled vases on bases, French or 
English china. 

Location : On either side of multi-arm candleholder next 
to single-arm candleholders. 

Documentation : Drawing made for Leslie's Illustrated Newspa - 
per , March 9, 1861. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Candleholder C.14 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Candlestick in the shape of a glass bottle or 

narrow vase (with a candle in it). 

Location : Next to vase, to the right of the multi-arm 
candleholder. 

Documentation : Drawing made for Leslie's Illustrated Newspa - 
per , March 9, 1861. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Pair of Decanters C.15 

Date : 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Plain glass with stoppers, one with sloping 

shoulders, one with flat top. 



193 



SITTING ROOM: ROOM C 

Location : Either side of multi-arm candle holder. 

Documentation : Drawing made for Leslie's Illustrated Newspa - 
per , March 9, 1861. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Basket of Apples (in season) C.16 

Date : 1850-1860 

Brief Description : A wicker basket filled with realistic artifi- 
cial apples. Real apples, if left too long, might damage the 
basket. 

Location : Oval table or sewing table. 

Documentation : Contemporary account (see p. 100). 

Source : To be acquired (reproduction). 

Object : Spittoons C.17 

Date : 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Pair of spittoons in pewter, brass, or ceram- 
ic (not necessary that they be matched). 

Location : On each side of the fireplace. 

Documentation : Drawing made for Leslie's Illustrated Newspa - 
per , March 9, 1861. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 



194 



SITTING ROOM: ROOM C 

Object : Stereoscope C.18 

Date : 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Stereoscope marked "A. Beckars, Patent April 7, 

1857, Jas. Lee, N. Y. manufacturer." 

Location : Large oval table. 

Documentation : Lincoln associated (see pp. 93-94). 

Source : LIHO 273. 

DINING ROOM: INTRODUCTION 

The Lincolns' dining room table should be set to show an ordinary 
family meal — breakfast sometimes and late evening tea (dinner or 
supper) at other times. However, a festive table setting would 
be appropriate at holiday-time. 

Written references to the Lincolns' mealtime customs are some- 
times contradictory; however, they do furnish some information: 

He (Mr. L) was not a wery early riser.... Mr. 
Lincoln was what I call a hearty eater and 
enjoyed a good meal as much as anyone I ever 
knew. I have often heard him say that he 
could eat corn &akes as fast as any two women 
could make them. 

Lincoln used to go to bed ordinarily from ten 
to eleven o'clock. .. .He rose early... break- 
fast was extremely frugal — an egg, a piece of 
toast, coffee, etc. At noon the President 



195 



took a little lunch--a biscuit, a glass of 
milk in winter, some fruit or grapes in sum- 
mer. He dined at from five to six. He was 
very abstemious, ate less than anyone I know. 
Drank nothing but water, not from principle 
but because he did not like wine or spirits. 

Mr. L was very fond of honey.... He was a fast 
eater, though not a very hearty one. 

Mrs. Lincoln's table was famed for the excel- 
lence of many rare Kentucky dishes, and in 
season it was loaded with venison, wild tur- 
key, prairie chicken, a ua i 1 , and other game 
which was then abundant. 

According to Miss Leslie's Lady's House Book , which Mary owned, 

the manner of preparing a breakfast table differs but little from 

that of a tea table. First, a cloth should be laid. Each 

place setting would consist of a plate, glassware, knife on the 

right with the blade inward, and fork and napkin to the left. A 

tea tray should be placed at one end of the table, where Mary 

could easily reach it. The tray would be arranged with slop bowl 

in the middle, hot water urn, teapot and coffeepot behind, sugar 

bowl on the right, creamer to the left, and the cups and saucers 

with the teaspoons to the right of the cup on the saucer. 

Period illustrations and inventories show that not every room in 
a house would have contained lighting devices; therefore, no can- 
dlesticks or lamps are recommended for this room. When the table 
is set for an evening meal or festive occasion, candlesticks 
should be brought in from another room. (For a more detailed 



196 



discussion on period lighting, see K. Menz, "Lighting Devices 
Used in the American Home - 1840-1860," unpublished report, The 
Harpers Ferry Center, December, 1982.) 

DINING ROOM: ROOM D 

See p. 313, for Summary of Furnishings and Cost Estimates. 

Object : Table D.l 

Date : 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Drop-leaf, walnut, Cottage style table with 
turned legs. 

Location : Center of the room. 

Documentation : The table now in the Lincoln dining room has 

a history of Lincoln ownership. It was one of several items pur- 
chased from them by Hugh Gallagher. (See pp. 75-76 for discus- 
sion.) 
Source : LIHO 25. 

Object : Chairs (8) D.2-9 

Date : 1840-1850 

Brief Description : Fancy chairs with stenciled crest rails, hor- 
izontal splat, rush seat, turned legs. 

Location : Dining room, around the table and against the 

walls. 



197 



DINING ROOM: ROOM D 

Documentation : (See pp. 57-59.) An examination of the 
chairs with a Lincoln history of ownership shows that the fancy 
chairs are the most likely to have been a set of dining room 
chairs in the Lincoln home. They have the strongest Lincoln prov- 
enance, since one came through the Oldroyd Collection, and fancy 
chairs, with rush or cane seats, were a practical choice for din- 
ing room furniture. They were often recommended by household ad- 
visories and chair manufacturers. 
Source : LIHO 59, 66, 77, 79, 92, 98, 1061, 1190. 

Object : Serving Table D.10 

Date : 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Late Empire style, pedestal, card table. 
Location : Against south wall, on either side of window 
(depending on placement of heating duct). 

Documentation : A card table with a history of Lincoln owner- 
ship descended to the family of one of Mrs. Lincoln's sisters. 
(See pp. 74-75 for provenance.) 
Source : LIHO 29. 

Object : Sideboard D.ll 

Date: 1840-1860 



198 



DINING ROOM: ROOM D 

B rief Description : Cottage style, cherry or walnut, of local 
manufacture. 

L ocation : East wall. 

Documentation : Although the sideboard was a new furniture 

form for the well-to-do at the beginning of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, by mid-century, its popularity was widespread. For example, 
in Springfield in 1850, J. Hutchinson listed "side-boards" as 
part of his stock of items made at his manufactory ( Daily Journal , 
Wednesday, January 2, 1850). It is not likely that the Lincolns 
would have omitted a sideboard from their dining room furnishings. 
Source : LIHO 33. 

Object : One Large Framed Print D.12 

Date : 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Subject should be a hunting scene in a period 
frame. 

Location : South wall, east side of the window. 

Documentation : Period practice. Dining room prints usually 
had a subject matter relating to food such as a fruit still life 
or a hunting scene. 

Source : LIHO 180, a print depicting game birds is ap- 
propriate. 



199 



DINING ROOM: ROOM D 

Object : One Large Framed Print or Watered or D.13 

Date: 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Subject should be a hunting scene or still 

life in a period frame. 

Location : South wall, west side of the window. 

Documentation : Period practice. Dining room prints usually 

had a subject matter relating to food such as a fruit still life 

or a hunting scene. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Two Tablecloths, Twelve Napkins, D.14 

and One Crumb Cloth 

Date : 1840-1850 

Brief Description : A tablecloth and napkins of plain white 

cotton should be used for a breakfast setting and a tablecloth 

and napkins of plain white linen should be used for an evening 

tea or festive occasion. Crumb cloth to be made of light canvas 

or a heavy 1 inen. 

Location : To be placed on and under the dining room 

table. 

Documentation : Records show that Mary Lincoln made several 

purchases in 1859 of tablecloths, table linen, and napkins (see 

pp. 98-100). Period practice indicates the use of a crumb cloth. 



200 



DINING ROOM: ROOM D 

Source : One cotton tablecloth with six cotton napkins, 

and one linen tablecloth with six linen napkins, and a linen or 
canvas crumb cloth to be acquired (antique or reproduction). 

Object : China D. 15-16 

Date : 1840-1850 

B rief Description : Six plates and assorted serving pieces in 
transfer printed Staffordshire creamware or white ironstone. 
Location : Plates to be used at each place setting and 

serving pieces to be used on the dining room table, sideboard, 
and serving table. 

Documentation : The archeological excavations (documented on 

pp. 77-79) uncovered identifiable mid-nineteenth-century trans- 
fer printed Staffordshire creamware and ironstone shards in ap- 
propriate quantities to suggest the possibility that it was used 
by the Lincolns; along with shards of pressed glass from goblets 
and tumblers in patterns (such as flute and paneled) that were 
commonly used in mid-century households. Springfield City Direc- 
tories for 1855-1859 include merchant advertisements for china, 
queensware, Brittania ware, crockery, and glassware in plain 
pressed glass, cut, and Bohemian. 



201 



DINING ROOM: ROOM D 

There is a transfer printed plate in the MPS collection (LIHO 192) 
that has a Lincoln association (see pp. 101-102 for documenta- 
tion). It could be used on the table as a serving piece. 

Also documented on pp. 101-102 are three other pieces of china in 
the NPS collection that supposedly came from the Lincolns' home-- 
an ironstone bowl (LIHO 193), a creamware pitcher (LIHO 197), and 
a leaf-shaped ironstone serving dish (LIHO 195). Those pieces of 
china are characteristic of china in use at mid-century and would 
be appropriate on the table, although they should not be present- 
ed as Lincoln associated items, because of the absence of authen- 
tication. The NPS collection also contains four small plates, 
four dinner-size plates, a platter, and a covered vegetable dish 
(LIHO 1019-1028) in blue transferware. Those pieces are identi- 
fied on the bottom with an elongated octagonal wreath and "Daw- 
son." Dawson was produced by South, Hylton and Ford Potteries 

12 
(ca. 1799-1864) of Sunderland, Durham, England. That china 

does not have a documented Lincoln association but, like the 

china mentioned above, would be appropriate. 

The NPS collection also contains some ironstone china (LIHO 212- 
254) that is identified as "sprig pattern." Various pieces are 
marked on the bottom in different ways--"REAL IRONSTONE CHINA;" 



202 



DINING ROOM: ROOM D 

PARIAN STONE;" and impressed into another is a hallmark with what 
looks like a lion on the left and a horse on the right, in the 
middle is a shield with "OPAQUE, GRANITE CHINA, W.H. & CO." That 
particular trade-mark is identified as belonging to Whittaker, 
Heath and Co., Hallfield Pottery, Hanley, Ca. 1892-8. 13 This 
china is, therefore, not appropriate for use in the Lincoln Home. 
Source : To be acquired (antique). Two blue transfer 

ware dinner plates, marked "Dawson," would complete a set now in 
the LIHO Collection (LIHO 1019, 1021-1028). Another alternative 
is to purchase six plates of one of the earthenware types in the 
archeological excavations. A large number of plain white iron- 
stone shards were uncovered in quantities which suggest the pres- 
ence of a set, some with decoration in relief and some marked by 
Bridgwood and Clarke of Burslem. The Staffordshire Potteries 
of Bridgwood and Clarke, Churchyard Works, Burslem, made opaque 
porcelain between the mid-1850s and 1874. Decorated services 
of tableware were also available from Bridgwood and Clarke, im- 
pressed with the name and bearing a printed mark, the royal arms 
above PORCELAIN OPAQUE/ B & C/ BURSLEM. 14 China produced by the 
Joseph Clementson Staffordshire Potteries from 1839 to 1855 might 
also be considered. The leaf-shaped dish discussed on pp. 101- 



203 



DINING ROOM: ROOM D 

102 was produced by that manufacturer and it supposedly belonged 
to the Lincolns. 

Object : Tea Service and Tray D.17 

Date: 1840-1850 

Brief Description : One china tea service with cups and companion 
pieces as described on pp. 195-196, and a japanned tray. 
L ocation : On the tea tray at one end of the dining room 

table. 

Documentation : The tea service is recommended in Miss Les - 

lie's Lady's House Book . There is no known description of the 
tea service that Mary Lincoln had in Springfield but there are 
written references to her having guests for tea. 

Records also show that the Lincolns purchased quantities of tea 
and some tinware from local Springfield merchants. Transfer 
printed Staffordshire or white ironstone would be appropriate for 
the tea service, on the basis of archeological evidence and 
period practice. Painted (japanned) tinware was \/ery popular in 
mid-century. 

Source : To be acquired (antique to match plates dis- 

cussed above). 



204 



DINING ROOM: ROOM D 

Object : Glassware D. 18-19 

Date : 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Six pressed glass goblets. 

Location : At each place setting on the dining room 

table. 

Documentation : The flint pressed glass goblets in the NPS 

collection do not have a documented Lincoln association but they 

are representative of the type commonly used in mid-century 

households and advertised in Springfield City Directories of the 

1850s. Pressed glass shards were also uncovered in the archeo- 

logical excavations. 

Source : LIHO 1013-1016; two to be acquired (antique). 

Object : Flatware D. 20-21 

Date : 1840-1850 

Brief Description : Coin silver flatware (LIHO 1029-1040). 

Location : At each place setting as described on pp. 195 

-196. 

Documentation : There is no known description of the flatware 

used by the Lincolns in Springfield, except for the documentation 

given on p. 101. The coin silver flatware in the NPS collection 



205 



DINING ROOM: ROOM D 

is a mid-century pattern produced by Gorham Manufacturing Company 
of Chicago and coin silver flatware was wery popular and commonly 
used at the time. 

Source : LIHO 1029-1040; two additional place settings 

to be acquired. 

Object : Cake Stand D.22 

Date : 1840-1850 

Brief Description : A pressed glass cake stand. 
Location : Sideboard. 

D ocumentation : Period practice. Pressed glass was very pop- 

ular at mid-century and it was advertised by local Springfield 
merchants. Pressed glass shards were also found in the archeo- 
logical excavations. The pressed glass cake stand in the NPS 
collection supposedly belonged to Mary Lincoln; however, this 
association cannot be verified (see p. 103 for documentation). 
Source : LIHO 255. 

Object : Castor Set D.23 

Date: 1840-1850 



206 



DINING ROOM: ROOM D 

Brief D es cription : A silver plated or Brittaniaware castor set 
with glass condiment bottles. 

Location : Sideboard. If the table is set for a festive 

occasion or a meal other than breakfast, the castor set should be 
placed on the table. 

Documentation : Period practice. Castor sets were \/ery com- 

mon dining room accessories. 
Source : LIHO 183-189. 

KITCHEN-PORCH-STOREROOM: INTRODUCTION 

Mary Lincoln's Springfield kitchen should contain furnishings 
that she accumulated between 1845 and 1861. Suggested furnish- 
ings in this plan are based on records of purchases of kitchen 
items made by the Lincolns at local Springfield stores, recom- 
mendations from a popular nineteenth-century housekeeping book 
that Mary Lincoln purchased, and information about kitchen fur- 
nishings manufactured in Illinois at the time. 

By the late 1850s, the appearance of the kitchen (particularly 
in city homes like this one in Springfield) had changed with the 
advent of the cooking stove. Walls that had once been dark and 
smoky could be maintained white or a light color. Records show 



207 



15 
that Lincoln hired John Roll in 1850 to whitewash walls. In 

general, rooms were less smoky because the cooking fireplace was 

closed-up. Curtains were now being used to brighten city-kitchen 

windows and the ones in Mary Lincoln's kitchen should be made 

simply of check cloth or calico. Records show that the Lincolns 

purchased check cloth and calico in appropriate quantities for 

kitchen curtains. 

Lincoln scholars have written that Mary Lincoln was a woman of 
exceptional taste and that she delighted in furnishing her home 
in style. There is a record of her purchasing Miss Lesl ie's 

Lady's House Book , as well as Miss Leslie's Directions for Cook - 

18 
ery in Its Various Branches , ' popular books on homemaking. Mary 

Lincoln was a frugal household manager and economized in the 
kitchen. In the nineteenth century, it was not uncommon to rele- 
gate older furnishings to the kitchen; and it is suggested that 
the Lincolns would have had some older furnishings (from their 
early years of marriage) in this room. 

KITCHEN: ROOM E 

See p. 316, for Summary of Furnishings and Cost Estimates. 

Object : Cook Stove, Wood Burning E.l 

Date: 1850-1860 



208 



KITCHEN: ROOM E 

Brief Description : The Iron Royal Oak cook stove (LIHO 559) has 

been described on p. 109 of this study and is appropriate for the 

kitchen. 

Location : The stove should be installed against the 

chimney in the west wall of the kitchen. 

Documentation : Iron stoves had been imported for use in 

Illinois since the 1830s and, in that same decade, iron foundries 

in the state were making cast-iron stoves for both cooking and 

heating. By mid-century, there were many producers of cast-iron 

19 
products in Illinois. In 1850, Lincoln hired a local contractor 

to close fireplaces and plaster them because he preferred wood- 

burning stoves. 

Source: LIHO 559. 



Object : Stove Implements: Poker, E.2 

Lid Lifter, Ash Rake 

Date : 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Iron. 

Location : By stove. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 



209 



KITCHEN: ROOM E 

Object : Heat Shield E.3 

Date: 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Square of zinc or tin. 
Location : To be placed under the cook stove. 

Documentation : Cook stoves were used continually during the 

day for cooking and heating and they became very hot. The floor 
under the stove was protected with a heat shield. 
Source : An appropriate shield is in the LIHO Collec- 

tion, though it does not have a catalogue number. 

O bject : Work Table E.4 

Date : 1840-1850 

Brief Description : The work table should be of appropriate size 
to fit under the stairway (in front of the window for light), al- 
lowing room for the dry sink to be placed against the north wall. 
The table should have unfinished scrubbed top surface and either 
a plain tapered leg or a turned-style leg. Examples of early Il- 
linois tables are shown on pp. 151, 175, and 235 of Betty Mad- 
den's recent book Arts, Crafts and Architecture in Early Illinois 
(1974). 21 



210 



KITCHEN: ROOM E 

Location : The table should be placed against the east 

wall . 

Documentation : A worktable, for food preparation, was consid- 

ered a necessity in the nineteenth-century kitchens. There is no 
known written reference to the table in Mary Lincoln's kitchen 

but, in Miss Leslie's Lady's House Book , two tables were recom- 

22 
mended. Only one table, however, is suggested in this plan be- 
cause Mary's kitchen is small. Examples of Illinois-made work- 
tables from the period survive and are shown in Madden, Arts. . .in 
Early Illinois . 
Source : LIHO 125. 

Object : Chair E.5 

Date : 1840-1850 

Brief Description : A painted side chair with rush seat. 
Location : To be placed next to the work table. 

Documentation : Period practice. A place to sit for the 

servant eating a meal or while preparing food was a standard 
kitchen furnishing. See illustrations in Harold Peterson's Amer - 
icans at Home (New York: Charles Scribner and Sons, 1971). 
Source: LIHO 1062. 



211 



KITCHEN: ROOM E 

Object : Dry Sink E.6 

Date : 1840-1850 

Brief Description : The dry sink in nineteenth-century kitchens 
resembled a small cupboard. The recessed top was sometimes lined 
with metal and was large enough to hold a tub of water and dishes 
for washing. The doors below were usually paneled or vertical 
boards and they covered a storage area. 

Location : The dry sink should be placed against the 

north wall, next to the outside door. Water from the well would 
be brought through that door. 

Documentation : There is no known written reference to the 

sink in Mary Lincoln's kitchen; however, there is written re- 
ference to water being carried into the house from the backyard 

23 
pump. In addition, Miss Leslie's Lady's House Book does recom- 

24 
mend sinks as a necessity for the kitchen and examples of early 

Illinois-made dry sinks still exist. Appropriate illustrations 

can be found in Madden, Arts... in Early Illinois , p. 128. 

Source : LIHO 118. 

Object : Floor Cloth E.7 

Date: 1855-1860 



212 



KITCHEN: ROOM E 

Brief Description : Catherine Beecher in The American Woman's Home 
(1869), explains how to make an inexpensive oilcloth for the kitch- 
en floor: 

To procure a kitchen oilcloth as cheaply as 
possible, buy cheap tow cloth and fit it to 
the size and shape of the kitchen. Then have 
it stretched and nailed to the south side of 
the barn and, with a brush, cover it with a 
coat of thin rye paste. When this is dry, put 
on a coat of yellow paint and let it dry for a 
fortnight. Then put on a second coat... let it ^c 
dry two months and it will last for many years. 

Easy-to-clean oilcloth was used on tables, shelves, and floors to 

catch spills. 

Location : It is suggested that a square of oilcloth 

cover the entire floor area up to the visitor pathway. 

Documentation : Miss Leslie's Lady's House Book recommended 

that there was "no better covering for a kitchen floor than a 

coarse, stout oilcloth in figured or plain color of blue, brown, 

olive, or yellow." In Springfield newspapers, local nineteenth- 

27 
century craftsmen advertised painted oilcloth ' and records show 

that the Lincolns did purchase oilcloth. 

Source : To be acquired (reproduction). 



Object : Cupboard E.8 

Date: 1840-1850 



213 



KITCHEN: ROOM E 

Brief Description : In nineteenth-century kitchens cupboards were 
used for storage of utensils, such as pots, dishes, etc. They 
were usually large pieces of furniture, about three and one-half 
or four- feet wide, and about seven-feet high. There were shelves 
above and storage space under the work surface. Paneled doors 
usually covered both the storage space and the shelves. 
Location : It is suggested that the cupboard be placed 

in the northwest corner of the kitchen (near the stove) against 
either wal 1 . 

Documentation : Written references to a cupboard in Mary's 

kitchen are discussed on pp. 110-112 of this study. Examples of 
Illinois-made nineteenth-century cupboards are shown in Madden, 
Arts.. .in Early Illinois , pp. 110, 128, 151, and 175. 
Source : LIHO 117. 

Object : Rocking Chair E.9 

Date : 1840-1850 

Brief Description : Ladder-back rocking chair with splint-weave 

seat. 

Location : The rocking chair should be placed by the 

stove. 



214 



KITCHEN: ROOM E 

Do cumentation : See p. 80 for information about the ladder- 

back rocking chair — it has a tradition of belonging to Mary Lin- 
coln but it is not well documented. It is similar to nineteenth- 
century Illinois-made chairs shown in Madden, Arts. . .in Early II- 
linois , pp. 82, 98, 110, 150, 174, and 235. Making butter in the 
nineteenth-century manner was a long and slow process. Family 
members joined in and took turns sitting beside the butter churn 
and working at this chore. A comfortable chair would be consid- 
ered a necessity. 
Source : LIHO 126. 

Object : Butter Churn E.10 

Date : 1840-1850 

Brief Description : Stoneware butter churn, made in Illinois. 
Location : To be placed near the south door next to the 

rocking chair. 

Documentation : Period practice. Stoneware articles for the 

kitchen are recommended in Miss Leslie's Lady's House Book . 
Nineteenth-century Illinois potters produced butter churns and 
other utilitarian articles in stoneware for everyday use. Mad- 
den, in Arts... in Early Illinois , shows examples of Illinois but- 
ter churns on pp. 181-185. 



215 



KITCHEN: ROOM E 

Source : To be acquired (antique); LIHO 480 can be 

used until an earlier one can be acquired. 

Object : Open Shelves E.ll 

Date: 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Small open shelves made of wood with closed- 

in sides and back, to be hung on the wall. It is suggested that 

the shelves be lined with oilcloth. 

Location : Two sets of hanging shelves are suggested-- 

one set for the northeast corner of the room (near the dry sink 

and table) and one set for the wall on the south side of the 

chimney. 

Documentation : Nineteenth-century kitchens did not have 

built-in storage areas. In those days, open wooden shelves were 

hung on the wall to hold kitchen items and cocking supplies. 

Miss Leslie's Lady's House Book recommends lining shelves with 

oilcloth; and records show that the Lincolns did purchase oil- 

2 Q 

cloth and bordering. " 

Source : LIHO 548 and 549 (reproductions). 

Object : Coffee Grinder E.12 

Date: 1850-1860 



216 



KITCHEN: ROOM E 

Brief Description : A grinder with crank handle should be hung in 
a convenient place. 

Location : It is suggested that the grinder be placed 

near the dry sink and the work table where it would have been 
available for food preparation. 

Documentation : Nineteenth-century homemakers seldom had a 

chance to buy products ready for the table. The general store 
usually sold coffee beans, salt, sugar, herbs, and spices that 
had to be ground before they could be used. There is no known 
written reference to the grinder but there is a record of food- 
stuffs being purchased by the Lincolns that would require use of 
this article. (See pp. 112-119 for the list.) Also, Miss Les - 
lie's Lady's House Book , p. 235, recommends this item for the 
kitchen. 
Source : LIHO 578. 

Object : Knife Cleaning Box E.13 

Date : 1850-1860 

Brief Description : A hanging, rectangular wood knife cleaner and 

sharpener. 

Location : To be placed near the dry sink and work table 

where it would be near at hand for food preparation. 



217 



KITCHEN: ROOM E 

Documentation : Period practice. Miss Leslie's Lady's House 

Book , p. 235 recommends this item for the kitchen. 
Source : LIHO 495. 

Object : Spice Cabinet E.14 

Date : 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Small, hanging, wooden cabinet with eight 
drawers to hold spices. 

Location : It is suggested that the spice cabinet be 

hung in the northwest corner of the kitchen near the cupboard and 
cook stove where it would have been readily available for prepar- 
ing meals. 

Documentation : Miss Leslie's Lady's House Book , p. 235 list- 

ed a spice cabinet and records show that the Lincolns did pur- 
chase spices and herbs which would need to be stored in a spice 
cabinet. (See pp. 112-119 for the list of foodstuffs.) 
Source : LIHO 507. 

Object : Salt Box E.15 

Date : 1850-1860 

Brief Description : A small, hanging, wooden salt container with 
a 1 id and curved front. 



218 



KITCHEN: ROOM E 

Location : To be hung in the northwest corner of the 

kitchen near the cupboard and cook stove where it would have been 
readily available for preparing meals. 

Documentation : Period practice. Miss Leslie's Lady's House 

30 
Book listed a salt box as a necessity for the kitchen and rec- 
ords show that the Lincolns did make salt purchases. (See pp. 
112-119 for the list of foodstuffs.) 
Source : LIHO 504. 

Object : Broom E.16 

Date : 1860 

Brief Description : Broom with hickory handle. 

Location : It is suggested that a broom be leaned 

against the wall beside the cupboard in the northwest corner of 

the kitchen. 

Documentation : Brooms are listed among those items purchased 

by the Lincolns at nearby Springfield stores (see p. 117). Brooms 

are also listed among the kitchen necessities recommended in Miss 

Leslie's Lady's House Book , p. 238. 

Source: LIHO 506. 



219 



KITCHEN: ROOM E 

Object : Two Lamps E.17 

Date : 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Two small whale oil or lard lamps, blown 
glass or pewter. 

Location : To be placed on the open shelves. 

Documentation : Mrs. Lincoln purchased two lamps from Irwin 

and Co. for $1.50 on April 16, 1844 (see p. 63). No lamps appear 
in the Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861 drawings of 
the parlors or sitting room. Lamps were often stored in the 
kitchen, where they were taken to be cleaned. They were placed 
in the rooms only when in use at night. See Abbott Lowell Cum- 
mings, ed. Rural Household Inventories (Boston: The Society for 
the Preservation of New England Antiquities), p. xxx; Martha 
Careful, Household Hints to Young Housewives (London: Dean and 
Son, 1852), p. 13; Margaret B. Schiffer, Chester County, Pennsyl - 
vania Inventories 1684-1850 (Exton, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Pub- 
lishing Ltd., 1974), pp. 170-171. 
Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Two Candleholders E.18 

Date : 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Iron or tin. 



220 



KITCHEN: ROOM E 

Location : To be placed on the open shelves. 

Documentation : Many candle purchases are listed among those 

items bought by the Lincolns at nearby Springfield stores (see 
pp. 112-119). 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : One Lantern on Wall Bracket E. 19-20 

Date : 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Glass and tin with carrying handle. 

Location : On a wall bracket near the north door for 

easy access when going outside. 

Documentation : A glass lantern is listed among the items 

purchased by the Lincolns at nearby Springfield stores (see pp. 

112-119). Miss Leslie's Lady's House Book , p. 235 also lists a 

lantern as a kitchen necessity. 

Source : LIHO 502; the wall bracket to be acquired 

(antique or reproduction). 

Object : Candlebox E.21 

Date : 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Tin, either plain or with punched decoration. 



221 



KITCHEN: ROOM E 

Location : To be attached to the wall near the dry sink 
or any convenient space that is away from the heat of the stove. 
Documentation : Many candle purchases are listed among those 
items bought by the Lincolns at nearby Springfield stores (see 
pp. 112-119). It was period practice to store candles in tin 
boxes hung on the wall to keep them away from vermin. 
Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Utensils E.22 

Date : 1840-1850 

Brief Description : Nineteenth-century kitchen utensils included 
earthenware, ironware, tinware, woodenware, and basketry. 
Location : Utensils should be chosen from those articles 
documented below and placed about the kitchen as recommended. 
Documentation : Records show that the Lincolns made payments 
to tinware and other local merchants but no extensive list of 
articles is known (see pp. 112-119). In the nineteenth century, 
tinware, ironware, earthenware, woodenware, and basket items were 
all used in the kitchen. The following list is from Miss Les - 
lie's Lady's House Book , pp. 233-240, and is included to document 
what utensils were recommended for nineteenth-century kitchens. 
However, the average homemaker had a minimum of small kitchen 



222 



KITCHEN: ROOM E 

items and Mary Lincoln, a frugal household manager and economical 
in the kitchen, probably did not have an abundance of those items 
either: 



Ironware: 



Tinware 



Iron Pot 
Griddles (2) 
Iron Shovels 
Iron Strainer 
Iron Turner 
Iron Tongs 
Sadiron 
Waffle Iron 
Bake Pans 
Trivets 
Skillets 
Ladles 
Skewers 
Toasting Iron 
Coffee Roaster 
Tea Kettle 
Coffee Mill 
Kitchen Cleaver 
Knives & Forks 
Chopper 
Spoons 
Scales 
Iron Pot 



Pie Dishes 

Cake Pans 

Dozen Muffin Rings 

Oval Cans 

Lard Vessel 

Butter Kettle 

Sauce Pans 

Roasting Pan 

Colander 



(LIHO 477) 
(LIHO 524) 
(LIHO 573, 
(LIHO 567) 
(LIHO 564, 
(LIHO 566) 
(LIHO 553, 


574) 
572) 
554, 555 


(LIHO 561) 




(LIHO 568) 




(LIHO 552) 
(LIHO 578) 




(LIHO 439, 
(LIHO 570, 


450-460) 
575) 


(LIHO 436) 
(LIHO 551) 





223 



KITCHEN: ROOM E 



Tinware: (Cont'd) 



Copper : 



Fish Kettle 

Egg Boiler 

Apple Roaster 

Pepper Box 

Graters 

Spice Boxes 

Funnels 

Scoops 

Cups 

Buckets 

Coffeepot 

Dippers 

Pie Crimper 

Milk Bucket 

Apple Corer 

Pitcher 

Foot Warmer 

Tray 

Mold 



Double Boiler 
Wash Boiler 
Brass Pot 
Funnel 



(LIHO 536, 540) 



(LIHO 537) 

(LIHO 517) 

(LIHO 538) 

(LIHO 500) 

(LIHO 479) 

(LIHO 541) 

(LIHO 543) 



(LIHO 558) 

(LIHO 584) 

(LIHO 483) 

(LIHO 569, 571) 



Woodenware: 



Buckets 
Bread Board 
Sieves 
Masher 
Sleeve Board 
Egg Beater 
Paste Board 
Spoons 
Sugar Boxes 
Salt Boxes 
Bread Box 



(LIHO 440) 
(LIHO 514) 



(LIHO 
(LIHO 
(LIHO 
(LIHO 



435, 
481) 
504) 
583) 



437, 445, 563) 



224 



KITCHEN: ROOM E 



Woodenware: (Cont'd) 



Molds (LIHO 442) 

Cutlery Box (LIHO 449, 495) 

Towel Rack (LIHO 120) 

Box (LIHO 519, 520) 

Bowls (LIHO 509, 510-513) 

Mortar and Pestles (LIHO 447, 448, 535) 

Flyswitch (LIHO 505) 

Rolling Pin (LIHO 443, 464,492) 

Coffee Stick 

Roller Towel Bar (LIHO 582) 

Tinder Box 

Sand Box 

Wooden Washboard 

Wooden Clothes Wringer (LIHO 501) 

Wood Rug Beater (LIHO 503) 



Basketware: 



Market Basket 

Egg Baskets (LIHO 372) 

Bottle Basket 

Clothes Basket 

Storage Baskets 

Wisk Broom (LIHO 515) 

Demijohns for Vinegar and 

Molasses 



Earthenware: 



Stoneware (LIHO 426, 428, 430, 

444, 550) 

White Crockery (LIHO 518, 577, 579, 

580) 

Brown Earthen Pans (LIHO 466, 467, 469, 

498, 499, 516, 581) 



225 



KITCHEN: ROOM E 
Glassware: 



Bottles (LIHO 523, 525, 526, 

527, 528, 529, 530, 

531, 532, 533, 534) 

Canning Jars (LIHO 410, 413, 421, 

etc.) 



Source : It is suggested that a few representative ar- 

ticles be selected from each category, be acquired (antique), and 
placed in the cupboard, on the open shelves, stove and work table. 
A wooden tub or bucket could be placed in the dry sink with a 
coarse towel hanging nearby as suggested in Miss Leslie's Lady's 
House Book , p. 230. 

Object : Curtains E.23 

Date : 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Two pair, calico or check cloth, simple wood 

rods, on brackets. 

Location : Windows in kitchen and storeroom. 

Documentation : See Lincoln family fabric purchases in Harry 

E. Pratt, ed., "The Lincolns Go Shopping," Journal of the II 1 i - 

nois State Historical Society , Volume XLVIII, pp. 66-67. 

Source: To be acquired (reproduction). 



226 



PORCH: ROOM E 

Object : Wood Box E.24 

Date : 1840-1850 

Brief Description : Wooden chest- type box with a hinged lid. 

Location : On east porch, near the kitchen door. 

Documentation : Historians have referred to Lincoln chopping 

31 
wood and carrying it in to replenish the wood box. Wood boxes 

were usually in the kitchen where the wood was handy to the stove 

but Mary Lincoln's kitchen is small and the wood box was likely 

to have been outside on the porch. An 1865 stereoscope view of 

the east elevation of the Lincoln home shows what appears to be a 

32 
wood box on the back porch. 

Source : LIHO reproduction. 

STOREROOM: ROOM E 

Object : Icebox E.25 

Date : 1840-1850 

Brief Description : Iceboxes were made by eastern carpenters 
using local woods. They were plain, square insulated boxes with 
a tin lining to help retain the cool air and to make them water- 
tight. There was a compartment in the top for the block of ice 
and space below for storing foodstuffs. 



227 



STOREROOM: ROOM E 

Location : In the kitchen today, refrigerators are near- 

at-hand but Mary Lincoln's icebox probably was not because her 
kitchen would have been too warm. Cooking and baking in Mary's 
kitchen was a daylong process, during which the stove gave off a 
tremendous amount of heat. If the icebox were in the kitchen, 
the ice would melt quickly and stored food would spoil. It is 
suggested that Mary Lincoln kept her icebox in the cool store- 
room. 

Documentation : Iceboxes were being used early in the nine- 

teenth century. One of the first insulated iceboxes was patented 

in 1803 and, by 1840, eastern manufacturers were marketing them 

33 
from the seaboard to Illinois. In addition, Carl Sandburg, in 

his Lincoln biography, discusses transactions that Mary Lincoln 

34 
had with the iceman. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Pie Safe E.26 

Date : 1840-1850 

Brief Description : The pie safe was a cupboard for storing baked 
goods. It was about five-and-one-half feet tall and about three 
feet wide, standing on short legs. The sides and doors were 



228 



STOREROOM: ROOM E 

paneled tin, punched in decorative designs and allowing circula- 
tion of air. 

Location : It is suggested that the pie safe be in the 

storeroom where baked goods would cool and stay fresh. 
Documentation : See pp. 110-112 for references to a cup- 

board for storing baked goods. Miss Leslie's Lady's Home Book 
also recommends a safe for the kitchen. Madden, Arts. . .in Early 
Illinois , p. 135, shows an example of one that was made in Illi- 
nois in 1840-1850. 
Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Note : This plan does not recommend a flour bin (for storage of 
large amounts of flour) because there is no documentation to 
suggest that the Lincolns used one. Additionally, the Royal Oak 
stove in Mary's kitchen has a sma" 1 1 oven and it would not ac- 
commodate large quantities of baked items. It is suggested that 
the Lincolns probably purchased baked goods from a local Spring- 
field baker. 

Object : Laundry Supplies E.27 

Date: 1840-1850 



229 



STOREROOM: ROOM E 

Brief Description : Washing laundry in the nineteenth century 
required a number of articles that are documented below. 
Location : Storeroom. 

Documentation : In Miss Leslie's Lady's House Book , p. 8, it 

is recommended that washing be done once a week. The equipment 
included a tub to catch rainwater for laundry, washboard, clothes 
baskets, starch pans, lines, kettles, boiler to heat water, 
clotheshorse, lye, tin ladle, hickory stick to stir clothes, man- 
gle, and a linen or ticking laundry bag which should be hung up-- 
if left on the floor it could be injured by mice or cockroaches. 
It is suggested that a few representative articles from the above 
list be placed in the storeroom. 
Source : To be acquired (antique). 

FIRST FLOOR HALL: ROOM F 

See p. 319, for Summary of Furnishings and Cost Estimates. 

Object : Hall Stand F.l 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Gothic style with small mirror, umbrella 

holder, and hat pegs. 

Location: North wal 1 . 



230 



FIRST FLOOR HALL: ROOM F 

Documentation : A wel 1 -documented Gothic hall stand from the 

Bateman family is now in the Lincoln Home collection. (See p. 62 
for provenance. ) 

Source : LIHO 51. 

Ob ject : Two Prints F.2 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Religious or romantic subject matter. 

Location : South wal 1 . 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Hall Chair F.3 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Gothic style. 

Location : North wall. 

Documentation : A Gothic hall chair descended in the Bateman 
family with a history of Lincoln ownership. (See p. 62 for prov- 
enance.) 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 



231 



FIRST FLOOR HALL: ROOM F 

Ob ject : Umbrella F.4 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Bone or wooden handled black cloth umbrella. 

Location : Hall stand. 

D ocumentation : Period practice. 

Source : An appropriate umbrella is in the LIHO col- 
lection, though it does not have a catalogue number. 

O bject : Two Canes F.5 

Date: ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Two wooden walking canes. 

Location : Hall stand. 

Documentation : Period practice. The wel 1 -documented hall 

stand (LIHO 51) was designed to hold umbrellas and canes. Canes 

were also standard articles of dress. Their use was not limited 

to the elderly and infirm. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Wall Lamp F.6 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Glass oil lamp in cast-iron bracket. 



232 



FIRST FLOOR HALL: ROOM F 

Location : North wall. 

Documentation : On November 29, 1849, the Lincolns purchased 

a wall lamp from J. Bunn & Co. (see p. 63). 

S ource : To be acquired (antique). 

WINDOW HANGINGS: FIRST FLOOR: ROOMS A-D 

Object : Cloth Shades and Cotton A. 45; B.16 

Damask Draperies; Brass C.22; D.26 

Valances, Brass Tiebacks 

Date : Modern reproductions. 

Brief Description : The off-white or buff shades should be on 
wooden rollers. The draperies should be hung from a brass rod 
hidden beneath a metal cornice and tied back with brass tiebacks. 
The base of the curtains should rest on the floor, overlapping 
approximately an inch. Colors of the draperies should correspond 
to a color in the carpeting, such as a crimson, green, or blue, 
etc. Draperies in the parlors should be the same color and fab- 
ric. The sitting room and dining room should be different colors 
but could also be cotton damask. 
Location : First floor windows. 

Documentation : Light colored shades and dark draperies may 
be seen in the front windows of the parlor and sitting room in 



233 



WINDOW HANGINGS: FIRST FLOOR: ROOMS A-D 

the 1860 photograph of the Lincoln home taken during a Republican 
rally. One written reference (see p. 38) indicates that there 
were green shades in the Lincoln home. The photographic evidence 
is a more reliable source and; therefore, buff or white shades 
are recommended. (See p. 144 for Lincoln purchase of drapery ma- 
terial, cotton damask, 36 yards.) 

See drawings of parlors and sitting room made for March 9, 1861, 
Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper for style of drapery. 
There is no documentation for the dining room; therefore, it 
should be furnished similarly to the parlors and sitting room. 
Nor is there documentation for the front door sidelights. The 
present treatment is acceptable. 

Source : To be acquired (reproduction). Good quality 

reproduction fabrics are currently available from several New 
York fabric supply houses. It is recommended that the modern 
fabrics now hanging be replaced. 

FLOOR COVERINGS AND WALLPAPER: FIRST FLOOR: ROOMS A-D, F 

PARLORS 

Object : Brussels Carpet A. 42; B.13 

Date: ca. 1850-1860 



234 



FLOOR COVERINGS AND WALLPAPER: FIRST FLOOR: ROOMS A-D, F 

B rief Description : The carpeting should be reproduced from mid- 
nineteenth-century examples, similar in design to the Lesl ie's 
Illustrated Newspaper drawings. By basing the reproduction on 
an actual example, a more successful treatment of color and de- 
sign can be achieved. The front and back parlors have the same 
design. 

Location : Wall-to-wall. 

Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861. 

(See pp. 145-147 for discussion of original evidence for floor 
coverings. ) 
Source : To be acquired (reproduction). 

Object Three Rugs A. 43; B.14 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Two hearth rugs and one smaller area rug, 

hooked, yarn sewn, or small pieces of matching Brussels. 

Location : Hearths and in front of the table between the 

windows in the front parlor. 

Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861. 

(See pp. 145-147 for discussion of original evidence for floor 

coverings.) 

Source : To be acquired (antique, if possible). 



235 



FLOOR COVERINGS AND WALLPAPER: FIRST FLOOR: ROOMS A-D, F 

Ob ject : Wallpaper A. 44; B.15 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : The wallpaper should be reproduced similar in 
design to the Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper drawings and the 
1865 stereoscope views but (if possible) should be based on actu- 
al period wallpapers. 
Location : All walls. 

Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861. 

(See pp. 147-149 for a discussion of original evidence for wall- 
papers. ) 
Source : To be acquired (reproduction). 

SITTING ROOM 

Object : Ingrain Carpet C.19 

Date: ca . 1850-1860 

B rief Description : The carpeting should be reproduced from mid- 
nineteenth-century examples, similar in design to the Leslie's 
Illustrated Newspaper drawings. By basing the reproduction on an 
actual example, a more successful treatment of color and design 
can be achieved. 
Location: Wall-to-wall. 



236 



FLOOR COVERINGS AND WALLPAPER: FIRST FLOOR: ROOMS A-D, F 

Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861, 

(See pp. 145-147 for discussion of original evidence for floor 
coverings. ) 

Source : To be acquired (reproduction). 

Object : Hearth Rug C.20 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : One hooked hearth rug. 

Location : Hearth. 

Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861. 

(See pp. 145-147 for discussion of original evidence for floor 

coverings.) 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Wallpaper C.21 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : The wallpaper should be reproduced similar in 
design to the Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper drawings but (if 
possible) should be based on actual period wallpapers. 
Location: All walls. 



237 



FLOOR COVERINGS AND WALLPAPER: FIRST FLOOR: ROOMS A-D, F 

Documentation : Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , March 9, 1861. 

(See pp. 147-149 for a discussion of original evidence for wall- 
papers. ) 

Source : To be acquired (reproduction). 

DINING ROOM 

Object: Ingrain Carpet D.24 

Date: ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : The household guides recommend that dining 
room ingrains be dark colored. 
L ocation : Wall-to-wall. 

Documentation : Period practice. Dining rooms did not usual- 
ly have expensive floor coverings because of food spillage and 
because the dining room in the average house was not one of the 
formal rooms used for entertaining. In houses smaller than the 
Lincolns, the dining room often doubled as back parlor or family 
sitting room. 
Source : To be acquired (reproduction). 

Object : Wallpaper D.25 

Date: ca. 1850-1860 



238 



FLOOR COVERINGS AND WALLPAPER: FIRST FLOOR: ROOMS A-D, F 

Brief Description : It is recommended that the design of the 
wallpaper for this room be similar to the one shown in the 1865 
stereoscope view but based on an actual period wallpaper. 
Location : All walls. 

Documentation : See pp. 145-149 for a discussion of the orig- 
inal evidence for wallpaper in the Lincoln home. 
Source : To be acquired (reproduction). 

HALLWAY 

Object : Brussels Carpet F.7 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : A dark colored Brussels carpet in a period 
pattern with colors corresponding to wallpaper. 
Location : Wall-to-wall. 

Documentation : Period practice. Hallway floor coverings 

during the mid-nineteenth century were usually floor cloth, rag 
or Venetian, or ingrain carpet. The more expensive Brussels was 
rarely used in areas of high traffic. Brussels, however, is rec- 
ommended here because of the heavy visitor traffic. The more ap- 
propriate floor coverings would not withstand heavy usage. 
Source : To be acquired (reproduction). 



239 



FLOOR COVERINGS AND WALLPAPER: FIRST FLOOR: ROOMS A-D, F 

Object : Wallpaper F.8 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : A period design suitable for a hallway (i.e. 
a geometric pattern) should be reproduced. 
Location : All walls. 

Documentation : See pp. 147-149 for a discussion of the orig- 

inal evidence for wallpaper in the Lincoln home. 
Source : To be acquired (reproduction). 

BEDROOMS: INTRODUCTION 

According to tradition, Lincoln's bedroom was the front room over 
the parlor. The room should be furnished to reflect Lincoln's 
occupancy with such personal items as shaving equipment, his lap 
desk, and his traveling trunk. The room, however, also should be 
furnished more formally than the back rooms as was customary for 
the period since it is a front chamber. Records also show that 
on at least one occasion, Lincoln received visitors in a bedroom 
with a high post bed. (See p. 43 for the contemporary account.) 

The furnishings in this room are well documented. The wallpaper 
is original to the Lincoln period; a stereoscope view taken in 
1865 shows Lincoln's bed and washstand, which had been purchased 



240 



by the Til tons. Furthermore, a Waud drawing of the room, also 
made in 1865, suggests other period furnishings and a room ar- 
rangement which may have been similar to Lincoln's own arrange- 
ment of the furniture. (See p. 119 for further discussion of 
original evidence.) 

The present location of the furniture in the stereoscope view is 
now unknown; however, there are several pieces of bedroom furni- 
ture—beds, bureaus, and wardrobes--wi th wel 1 -documented histor- 
ies of ownership by the Lincolns. This report recommends making 
use of the Lincoln associated furniture wherever possible. How- 
ever, if a period "Elizabethan style" bedstead and washstand can 
be located, they should replace the bedstead and washstand in Mr. 
Lincoln's bedroom. (There is no certainty that the bed and wash- 
stand shown in the 1865 view were originally in Lincoln's own 
bedroom. Another possibility is that after Lincoln's death, 
these items took on a legendary association with Lincoln's bed- 
room; therefore, costly reproduction of the bedstead and wash- 
stand is not recommended.) 

The evidence for furnishing the other bedrooms is based on the 
survival of pieces of furniture with a history of Lincoln owner- 
ship. Period sources (noted in the bibliography) are greatly re- 
lied upon with an emphasis on those recommendations made by Eliza 



241 



Leslie in her Lady's House Book (1846), because Mrs. Lincoln her- 
self owned a copy of this popular housekeeping manual. 

All beds should have appropriate bed linen (see pp. 98 and 144 
for documentation), Marseilles quilts, or chintz coverlets. Ac- 
cording to Miss Leslie's Lady's House Book (pp. 316-317), the 
following procedure should be used in preparing a bed: 

Spread on the under sheet, tucking it in all 
round under the sides of the mattress; so as 
to keep it smooth and even, and to prevent its 
wrinkling, dragging, and getting out of place 
during the night. If it has a white linen 
case, shake up the bolster well, and lay it on 
after the under sheet. If it has no case, 
draw up this sheet more to the head, and tuck 
it well over the back of the bolster, but do 
not stretch the under sheet tightly, so as to 
drag the bolster down at night, causing it to 
get beneath the shoulders of the sleeper. Lay 
it easy, and put it with your hands into the 
hollow between the bolster and the bed. Next, 
spread on the upper sheet, tucking it well 
under the bottom, lest it get out of place at 
night. You need not tuck it at the two 
sides, as you did the under sheet. Then, if 
there are blankets, lay them on smoothly, 
securing them in place by tucking them in at 
the bottom and at the lower corners. Next, 
put on the spread or counterpane, taking care 
to have it smooth and even, and turning it 
down at the head with the upper sheet. Then, 
beat up the pillows and lay them in their 
places, the open ends outwards. 

Lighting devices were not common bedroom furnishings during the 

mid-nineteenth century. Period inventories, for example, rarely 

35 
list candlesticks in the bedrooms and even more rarely lamps. 



242 



Period illustrations also show that lighting devices do not al- 
oe 

ways appear in every room. Kitchens and hallways more often 
contained the necessary lighting devices. At night candlesticks 
and lamps would be carried from these areas to those rooms where 
needed. 

The available evidence on lighting in the Lincoln home indicates 
that the primary illuminant was candlelight. (See pp. 112- 119.) 
The use of candles as the main light source was characteristic of 
the period. Only two inexpensive lamps appear in the Lincolns' 
purchase records. Therefore, according to period practice and 
the available evidence on lighting in the Lincoln home, few 
lighting devices have been recommended for the Lincoln home bed- 
rooms. (For a more detailed discussion on period lighting, see 
K. Menz, "Lighting Devices Used in the American Home - 1840- 
1860," unpublished report, The Harpers Ferry Center, December, 
1982.) 

MR. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM G 

See p. 320, for Summary of Furnishings and Cost Estimates. 

Object : Bedstead G.l 

Date: ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : High post bedstead. 

Location: East wall . 



243 



MR. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM G 

Documentation : See pp. 120-125 for discussion of Lincoln 

beds. The stereoscopic view, labeled "Lincoln's bed," shows a 
high post spool turned oak bedstead in the "Elizabethan" style 
purchased by the Tiltons from the Lincolns. The location of this 
bed is now unknown; however, it is believed to have been destroy- 
ed along with the Tiltons' other furniture in the Chicago Fire. 
Source : LIHO 57. An Empire style, carved, high post 

bed now in the Lincoln bedroom should be replaced when possible 
by a spool turned oak bed more closely resembling the Tilton one. 
To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Bedding and Bedclothes G.2 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Mattress, two feather pillows, two sheets, 
two pillowcases, and a bolster. 
Location : Bed. 

Documentation : Period practice, see Eliza Leslie's Miss Les - 

lie's Lady's House Book (pp. 316-317) and see pp. 98 and 144 for 
references to fabrics purchased and owned by the Lincolns. 
Source : To be acquired (reproduction or antique). 



244 



MR. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM G 

Object : Bedspread G.3 

Date: ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : A Marseilles quilt. 

Location : Bed. 

Documentation : The Lincolns' account with John Williams & 

Co. lists the purchase of a Marseilles quilt on February 9, 1853 

(see p. 98). 

Source : LIHO 808. 

Object : Three Books G.4 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Location : Table. 

Documentation : See pp. 48-52 for list of Lincoln's reading 

material . 

Source: LIHO sources. 



Object : Springfield Newspapers and G.5 

Other Assorted Papers 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : 

Location: Table. 



245 



MR. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM G 

Documentation : See pp. 48-52 for lists of Lincoln's reading 

material . 

Source : To be acquired (reproduction). 

Object : Candlesticks G.6 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : A pair, pressed glass. 

Location : Bureau and writing table. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : LIHO 299 and 300. 

Object : Three Razors G.7-8 

Date : ca. 1830-1860 

Brief Description : Three long-handled shaving razors. 

Location : Washstand 

Documentation : Period practice. Men usually had more than 

one razor. 

Source : LIHO 341, two to be acquired (antique). 

Object : Razor Strop G.9 

Date: ca. 1830-1860 



246 



MR. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM G 

Brief Description : Wood and leather strop for sharpening long- 

bladed razors. 

Location : Washstand. 

Documentation : Period practice, a part of standard shaving 

equipment. 

Source : LIHO 1057. 

Object : Mug and Soap G. 10-11 

Date : ca. 1830-1860 

Brief Description : Small shaving mug with soap. 

Location : Washstand. 

Documentation : Period practice, a part of standard shaving 

equipment. 

Source : LIHO 343, soap to be acquired (reproduction). 

Object : Shaving Brush G.12 

Date : ca. 1830-1860 

Brief Description : Wooden handled brush with natural bristles. 

Location : Washstand. 

Documentation : Period practice, a part of standard shaving 

equipment. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 



247 



MR. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM G 

Object : Patent Model G.13 

Date : ca. 1840 
Brief Description : Wooden model . 

L ocation : Mantelpiece. 

Documentation : Copy of original patent model at the Smithson- 
ian Institution, Museum of American History. 
Source : To be acquired (reproduction). 

Object : Shaving Mirror G.14 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Mahogany veneered oval mirror with scroll -cut 
decoration and shelf. 

Location : West wall (between windows, above washstand). 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : LIHO 69, which has a tradition of Lincoln own- 
ership, although it is not well documented, would be appropriate. 



Object : Toilet Set to include Wash Bowl, G.15 

Pitcher, Soap Dish, and Chamber 
Pot 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Ironstone, white, a matched set. 



248 



MR. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM G 

L ocation : Washstand. The chamber pot should be placed 

in the washstand cupboard. Chamber pots would be in sight only 

during the night. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

S ource : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Footbath G.16 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Tin. 

Location : Near washstand. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source: LIHO 332. 



G.17 



Object: 


Slop Bucket 


Date: 


ca. 1840-1860 


Brief Description: 


Tin. 


Location: 


Near washstand. 


Documentation: 


Period practice 


Source: 


LIHO 331. 


Object: 


Water Can 


Date: 


ca. 1840-1860 



G.18 



249 



MR. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM G 



Brief Descri 


ption: 


Tin. 


Location: 




Near washstand. 


Documentation: 


Period practice. 


Source: 




LIHO 333. 


Object: 




Towel Horse 


Date: 




ca. 1840-1860 


Brief Descri 


ption: 


Wood, turned, of local manufacture 


Location: 




Near washstand. 


Documentation: 


Period practice. 


Source: 




LIHO 68. 


Object: 




Bureau 


Date: 




ca. 1840-1860 


Brief Descri 


ption: 


Late Empire style, mahogany bureai 



G.19 



G.20 



per tier of three small drawers on a body of four drawers. 

Location : Northeast corner. 

Documentation : See pp. 128-133 for discussion of Lincoln 



bureaus. 
Source: 



LIHO 1122, 



250 



MR. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM G 

Object : Wardrobe G.21 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Double door, walnut wardrobe. 
Location : South wall, to the west of door from hall. 

Documentation : See pp. 137-138 for discussion of Lincoln 

wardrobes. Wardrobe, LIHO 58, is well documented, having de- 
scended in the Melvin family along with its original bill of sale 
from Lincoln to Dr. Samuel Melvin. 
Source : LIHO 58. 

Object : Washstand G.22 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Washstand with drawer and double doors be- 
neath, "Elizabethan" or Cottage style marble top. 
Location : West wall, between windows. 

Documentation : A washstand of this description appears in 

the 1865 stereoscope view of the Tiltons' parlor bedchamber with 
the label "Lincoln's washstand" (see p. 119). 
Source : LIHO 90. 

Object : Side Chairs (2) G.23 

Date: ca. 1840-1860 



251 



MR. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM 6 

Brief Description : Late Empire style, with cane seats. 

Location : In front of the table in the northwest corner 

and in front of north window (near east wall). 

Documentation : Two chairs appear in the illustrations of 

the Til ton parlor chamber. The Til ton room arrangement is likely 

to have been similar to the Lincolns'. 

Source : LIHO 31 and 32. 

Object : Table G.24 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Small, round pedestal table (3' diameter) or 
small rectangular table. 

Location : Northwest corner of room. 

Documentation : Period practice. A table for writing pur- 
poses, holding books, etc., is likely to have been in the bed- 
room. The Waud drawing of the Til ton bedroom pictures such a 
table. Lincoln's lap desk (see p. 136) should be placed upon 
this table. 
Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Table Cover G.25 

Date: ca. 1840-1860 



252 



MR. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM G 

Brief Description : Green baize table cover, approximately 3 ' 6 " x 

4' or 3 '6" in diameter. 

Location : On the small table in northwest corner. 

Documentation : Period practice. Green baize table covers 

were commonly used to provide a writing surface and protect the 

table. 

Source : To be acquired (reproduction). 

Object : Mirror G.26 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Wooden, ogee molded frame, approximately 

1W high x IV wide. 

Location : Over bureau. 

Documentation : Period practice. Miss Leslie wrote in 1850 

that small movable looking glasses were "now much out of favor." 

A large glass hung upon the wall was preferred. A mirror appears 

over the bureau in the Til ton parlor chamber (see pp. 119-120). 

Source : LIHO 61. 

Object : Two Prints G.27 

Date: ca. 1840-1860 



253 



MR. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM G 

Brief Description : A pair of rectangular ogee molded walnut 

frames, approximately 18" high x 12" wide; subject matter should 

be historical or political figures. 

Location : Over fireplace, hung with picture cord from 

picture. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : LIHO 325, 326. 

Object : Bootjack G.28 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Wooden bootjack with extended handle. 

Location : Near wardrobe. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : LIHO 334. 

Object : Two Dresser Scarves G.29 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : White fringed cloths. 

Location : On the bureau and washstand. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 



254 



MR. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM G 

Object : Lap Desk G.30 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Walnut writing desk. 

Location : Table. 

Documentation : Period practice. A lap desk is the kind of 

personal item often located in the bedroom. 

Source : LIHO 308. (See p. 136 for the provenance of 

this lap desk with a history of Lincoln ownership.) 

Object : Stove G.31 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Cast-iron, wood-fueled, heating stove. 
Location : In front of the fireplace so that the stove- 
pipe can be connected to the chimney flue. 

Documentation : Period practice. The March 9, 1861 Leslie's 
Illustrated Newspaper drawing shows a parlor stove in the front 
parlor and Mr. Lincoln wrote two small checks to Springfield 
stove merchants in 1859. (See p. 119.) These references show 
that stoves were in use in the house, although there is no evi- 
dence to indicate the number of stoves in use. 
Source: LIHO 330. 



255 



MR. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM G 

Object : Shovel, Tongs, Stand G.32 

Date : 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Iron and brass. 

Location : Set by stove. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : LIHO 327, 328, 329. 

Object : Hearth Brush G.33 

Date : 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Wooden hearth brush with natural bristles. 

Location : In the fire tool stand (LIHO 327). 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Collar Box and Collars G.34 

Date : 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Circular wooden or cardboard box, approximate- 
ly 6 inches to 8 inches in diameter and 2h inches to 3k inches 
high containing linen, starched and pressed collars. 
Location : Bureau top. 
Documentation : Period practice. 
Source : To be acquired (antique if possible). 



256 



GUEST ROOM: ROOM H 

See p. 324, for Summary of Furnishings and Cost Estimates. Ac- 
cording to tradition, the south front bedroom was a guest room. 
(See discussion p. 8. ) 



Object : Bedstead H.l 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Mahogany, French bedstead. 
Location : East wall. 

Documentation : Period practice. See pp. 121-122 for discus- 
sion of a bedstead (LIHO 71) which descended in the Binnian fam- 
ily with a history of having come from the Lincoln home. The 
style of this bedstead is more fashionable and it is made of a 
more expensive wood than the cottage bedsteads described for the 
other chambers. It is appropriate for the front bedroom reserved 
for guests. 
Source : LIHO 71. 

Object : Bureau and Mirror H.2-3 

Date : ca. 1840-1850 

Brief Description : Late Empire style bureau, mirror to be mahog- 
any veneered, approximately 2V x Ik 1 . 

Location : West wall between windows and mirror over 
bureau. 



257 



GUEST ROOM: ROOM H 

Documentation : Period practice; see also pp. 128 through 133 

for discussion of bureaus with a history of Lincoln ownership. 

Source : LIHO 60 and 91. 

Object : Wardrobe H.4 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Large, late Empire style wardrobe. 

Location : North wall. 

Documentation : Period practice. See pp. 137 through 138 for 

a discussion of wardrobes with a history of Lincoln ownership. 

Source : LIHO 76. 

Object : Washstand H.5 

Date : ca. 1840-1850 

Brief Description : Late Empire style, with enclosed lower shelf. 

Location : South wall in southeast corner. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : LIHO 67. 

Object : Rocking Chair and Footstool H. 6-7 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Cane seated rocker with upholstered footstool. 



258 



GUEST ROOM: ROOM H 

Location : In front of southeast window. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : LIHO 64, LIHO 20. 

Object : Print H.8 

Date: ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Lithograph or engraving in wood frame approx- 
imately 2'x 2V . 

Location : To be hung over mantel . 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : LIHO 381. 

Object : Print H.9 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Lithograph or engraving in wood frame approx- 
imately lVx 1'. 

Location : To be hung on the east wall. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Wash Basin H.10 

Date: ca. 1840-1860 



259 



GUEST ROOM: ROOM H 

Brief Description : Ironstone, white. 

Location : Washstand. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Mug H.ll 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Ironstone, white. 

Location : Washstand. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 



H.12 



Object: 




Pitcher and Soap Dish 


Date: 




ca. 1840-1860 


Brief Descript 


ion: 


Ironstone, painted ch 


Location: 




Washstand. 


Documentation: 




Period practice. 


Source: 




LIHO 385, 384. 


Object: 




Slop Jar 


Date: 




ca. 1840-1860 


Brief Descript 


ion: 


Ironstone. 



H.13 



260 



GUEST ROOM: ROOM H 



Location: 



Documentation 



Source: 



Near washstand. 
Period practice, 
LIHO 1056. 



Object : 

Date : 

Brief Description 

Location : 

Documentation : 

Source: 



Stool 

ca. 1840-1860 
Crude wooden stool 
Near washstand. 
Period practice. 
LIHO 48. 



H.14 



Object : 

Date : 

Brief Description : 

Location : 

Documentation : 

Source: 



Dresser Scarves (2) 

ca. 1840-1860 

White fringed rectangular cloth, 

Bureau and small stand. 

Period practice. 

To be acquired (antique). 



H.15 



Object : 
Date: 



Vase 

ca. 1840-1860 



H.16 



Brief Description : French or English painted ceramic vase, 



261 



GUEST ROOM: ROOM H 

Location : Stand or mantel . 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Water Bottle and Tumbler H. 17 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Glass. 

Location : Washstand or bureau. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Pin Cushion H.18 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Small velvet cornered pillow. 

Location : Bureau. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Bedding and Bedclothes H. 19 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Mattress, bolster, two feather pillows, two 
sheets, and two linen pillowcases. 



262 



GUEST ROOM: ROOM H 

Location : Bed . 

Documentation : Period practice, see Eliza Leslie's Miss Les - 

lie's Lady's House Book (pp. 316-317) and see pp. 98 and 144 for 
references to fabrics purchased and owned by the Lincolns. 
Source : To be acquired (mattress, pillows, bolster 

to be reproductions; linen pillowcases and sheets to be antique). 

Object : Bedspread H.20 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Quilted cotton chintz, a reproduction fabric 

in an historic pattern. 

Location : Bed. 

Documentation : Period practice. Chintz was recommended by 

authors, such as Eliza Leslie, for bedrooms only. See p. 144 for 

account of Mrs. Lincoln's purchase of 10^ yds. of French chintz 

for $3.00 from John William & Co. 

Source : To be acquired (reproduction). 

Object : Stove H.21 

Date : 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Cast-iron heating stove. 



263 



GUEST ROOM: ROOM H 

L ocation : Fireplace. 

Documentation : Period practice, 

Source: LIHO 374. 



Object : Shovel, Tongs, Hearth Brush H.22 

Date : 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Iron and brass, and wooden hearth brush. 

Location : Set by stove. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source: To be acquired (antique). 



Object : Sofa, Lounge H.23 

Date : 1840 

Brief Description : Black horsehair, tufted half back. 

Location : North wall, east of doorway. 

Documentation : Period practice. See pp. 71-72 for history 

of Lincoln ownership. 

Source: LIHO 13. 



264 



MRS. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM I 

See p. 327, for Summary of Furnishings and Cost Estimates 



Object : Bedstead 1.1 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Low post, Cottage style with turned spindles. 

Location : East wall. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : LIHO 101. 

Object : Bedding and Bedclothes 1.2 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Mattress, bolster, two feather pillows, two 
sheets, and two linen pillowcases. 
Location : Bed . 

Documentation : Period practice, see Eliza Leslie's Miss Les - 

lie's Lady's House Book (pp. 316-317) and see pp. 98 and 144 for 
references to fabrics purchased and owned by the Lincolns. 
Source : To be acquired (mattress, pillows, bolster to 

be reproductions; linen pillowcases and sheets to be antique). 

Object : Bedspread 1.3 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : A Marseilles quilt. 



265 



MRS. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM I 

Location : Bed . 

Documentation : The Lincolns' account with John Williams & 

Co. lists the purchase of a Marseilles quilt on February 9, 1853 

(see p. 98). 

Source : LIHO 828. 

Object : Bureau 1.4 

Date: ca. 1820-1840 

Brief Description : Federal style bureau, reeded pilasters, and 

a swell front. 

Location : West wall, north of door to Abraham's room. 

Documentation : This bureau has a history of ownership by Mrs. 

Lincoln. See pp. 129-131. 

Source : LIHO 1126. 

Object : Pair of Wooden Brackets 1.5 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : A pair of small wooden shelves with scroll- 
work decoration. 

Location : Either side of mirror over dressing table. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source: LIHO 694 and 695. 



266 



MRS. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM I 

Object : Commode 1 . 6 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Mahogany veneered box. 

Location : Southeast corner. 

Documentation : Period practice. This commode has a history 

of ownership by Mrs. Lincoln. See pp. 125-127. 

Source : LIHO 104. 

Object : Washstand 1.7 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Late Empire style. 

Location : South wall, near door. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : LIHO 106. 

Object : Rocking Chair and Footstool 1.8-9 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Walnut lady's rocker and stool, caned or up- 
holstered in black horsehair. 

Location : At foot of bed near north window and table. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source: LIHO 56 and LIHO 96. 



267 



MRS. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM I 



Object: 


Sewing Table 


Date: 


ca. 1840-1860 


Brief Description: 


Smal 1 pedestal stand, i 


Location: 


North wall near window 


Documentation: 


Period practice. 


Source: 


LIHO 46. 



1. 10 



Object : Mirror I. 11 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

B rief Description : Mahogany veneered, ogee molded wooden frame. 

Location : Over washstand. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : LIHO 103. 

Object : Pair of Brackets 1.12 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Wooden, scrollwork decoration. 

Location : Either side of mirror over washstand. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source: LIHO 727 and 728. 



268 



MRS. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM I 

Object : Oval Picture 1.13 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Oval wooden frame with hair, shellwork, or 

pressed flower subject. 

Location : Over commode on south wall. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : LIHO 706. 

Object : Framed Pictures, Pair 1.14 

Date : 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Photographs of Tad and Willy, framed and hung 

over bureau. 

Location : Over bureau. 

Documentation : Period practice. See "Accessory Furnishings" 

(pp. 104-107) which lists several photographs of family members 

and friends which have a history of having been located in the 

Springfield house. Framed photographs were frequently hung on 

the walls. Many still have their original attachments by which 

they were hung. One example in a gutta percha frame may be seen 

at the House Where Lincoln Died, The National Park Service, Wash- 

37 
ington, D.C. Written references to this practice are rare; 

however, one reference is located in the letters of Louise Taft, 



269 



MRS. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM I 

about President Taft's boyhood home in Cincinnati. In a letter 
written in September, 1860, Louise described a new photograph of 
William Howard, taken on his third birthday, "hanging" before her. 
It was a full length photograph mounted in a gilt oval frame. 
Source : LIHO 392 and 393. 

Object : Bowl, Pitcher, Soap Dish, 1.15 

and Slop Jar 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Ironstone, white. 

Location : Washstand. 

Documentation : Period practice. Archeological evidence (see 

pp. 77-79). Purchases (see p. 98). 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Cologne Bottles (2) 1.16 

Date : ca . 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Glass or French china. 

Location : Dressing table. 

Documentation : Period practice. See list of the Lincolns 1 

local store purchases. 

Source: LIHO 722 and 723. 



270 



MRS. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM I 

Object : Pin Cushion 1.17 

Date: ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Cloth covered cushion with pre-1860 pins. 

Location : Dressing table. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Dresser Scarves (2) 1.18 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : White cotton fringed cloths. 

Location : Bureau and washstand. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Candlesticks 1.19 

Date: ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Parian, pair. 

Location : One on the dressing table, and one on the bu- 
reau. 

Documentation : Period practice and candle purchases made by 
the Lincolns (see pp. 112-119). 

Source: LIH0 350, 351. 



271 



MRS. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM I 

Object : Wicker Sewing Basket 1.20 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Oval basket with short sides and lid. 
Location : Chair or sewing table. 

Documentation : Mrs. Lincoln sewed many of her own and her 

children's clothes (see p. 114). LIHO 278 (now in such poor con- 
dition, it should be retired to storage) has a history of owner- 
ship by Mrs. Lincoln. See pp. 67-68. 
Source: LIHO 1003. 



1.21 



Object: 


Towels 


Date: 


ca. 1840-1860 


Brief Description: 


Cotton. 



Location : Washstand. 

Documentation : See list of local purchases made by the 

Lincolns, pp. 98-100. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Vase or Statuette 1.22 

Date: ca . 1840-1860 

Brief Description : English or French china. 



272 



MRS. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM I 



Location: 


Bureau. 


Documentation: 


Period practice. 


Source: 


LIHO 699. 


Object: 


Brush and Comb 


Date: 


ca. 1840-1860 


Brief Description: 


Wooden handled. 


Location: 


Dressing table. 


Documentation: 


Period practice. 


Source: 


To be acquired (antique). 


Object: 


Jewel ry 


Date: 


ca. 1840-1860 


Brief Description: 


Woven hair ornaments (2). 


Location: 


Dressing table. 


Documentation: 


Period practice. 


Source: 


LIHO 714, 715, 716, 717, 718 


Object: 


Wool Shawl 


Date: 


ca. 1850 


Brief Description: 


Pink and yellow wool shawl. 



1.23 



1.24 



1.25 



273 



MRS. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM I 

L ocation : Hung over the chair. 

Documentation : This shawl has a history of ownership by Mrs. 

Lincoln. See p. 104. 

Source : LIHO 744. 

Object : Framed Cutout Pictures 1.26 

Date: ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Cutout pictures of Georgian period; people 

mounted on black background. 

Location : Over Mary's bed on east wall. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : LIHO 729, 730, 731. 

Object : Books 1.27 

Date : Pre-1860 

Brief Description : Period books of various topics. 

Locatio n: Sewing table and bureau. 

Documentation : Period practice. See books owned by Mary 

Lincoln, pp. 52-53. 

Source : LIHO Collections, such as 943, 880, 946, to 

be periodically rotated. 



274 



MRS. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM I 

Object : Piece of Unfinished Sewing 1.28 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Hand sewing on linen, cotton or wool, prefer- 
ably to be partially finished. 

Location : Sewing table, or chair. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique preferable). 

Object : Foot Tub 1.29 

Date : ca. 1860 

Brief Description : White glazed earthenware vessel with oval 

base, wide molded bands, and square handles. Marked "Anthony 

Shaw/Burslem. " 

L ocation : Floor, near washstand. 

Documentation : NPS catalogue record states an employee was 

told in 1965 that the object belonged to Lincoln, but there is no 

other documentary evidence to support the claim. Godden (1964) 

places Anthony Shaw in Tunstall during the years 1851 to 1856, 

and in Burslem during the years "ca. 1860" to 1900. The Lincoln 

provenance for this item is questionable but possible. 

Source: LIH0 768. 



275 



MRS. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM I 

Object : Writing Box and Writing Equipment 1.30 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Slant-top box, mahogany or walnut, with hinged 

top and interior drawers; pens, paper, envelopes. 

Location : On top of bureau. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Stove 1.31 

Date : 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Small parlor stove suitable for room. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : LIH0 705. 

Object : Shovel, Tongs, Hearth Brush 1.32 

Date : 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Iron and brass, and wooden hearth brush. 

Location : Set by stove. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 



276 



MRS. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM I 

Object : Dressing Table 1.33 

Date: 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Small table with drawers and mirror, walnut 

or mahogany. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

BOYS' ROOM: ROOM J 

See p. 330, for Summary of Furnishings and Cost Estimates. 

This room should be furnished as if two of the Lincoln boys slept 
in it. Tad turned five in 1858, and Robert went to Exeter (and 
then Harvard) beginning in the summer of 1859. While Robert was 
away, it is most likely that one or both of the younger boys 
slept in this back bedroom. While Robert was at home, unless 
there was a visitor, it is probable that the front bedroom was 
also used. The children's belongings and toys, however, were 
most likely confined to the back bedroom. There is no need to 
have a wardrobe in every room and, considering the small size of 
this room, a wardrobe is not recommended. 

Object : Bedstead and Bedclothes J.l 

Date: ca. 1840-1860 



277 



BOYS 1 ROOM: ROOM J 



Brief Description : Low post Cottage style bedstead with spool 
turned posts and legs. 
Location : West wall centered. 

Documentation : Period practice. No evidence of original fur- 

nishings. 
Source : LIHO 88 (antique). 

Object : Bedding and Bedclothes J. 2 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Mattress, bolster, two feather pillows, two 
sheets, and two linen pillowcases. 
Location : Bed. 

Documentation : Period practice, see Eliza Leslie's Miss Les - 

li e's Lady's House Book (pp. 316-317) and see p. 144 for refer- 
ences to fabrics purchased and owned by the Lincolns. 
Source : To be acquired (mattress, pillows, bolster to 

be reproductions; quilt, sheets, and pillowcases to be antique). 

Object : Bedspread J. 3 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : A coverlet or quilt. 



278 



BOYS' ROOM: ROOM J 

Location : Bed . 

Documentation : Period practice. There are also two refer- 

ences in the Lincolns' store accounts to the purchase of quilts, 
one a Marseilles quilt; the other a reference to purchasing 
chintz and batting, fabric and stuffing for making a quilt (see 
pp. 98 and 144). 
Source : LIHO 801. 

Object : Bureau J. 4 

Date: ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Late Empire style, walnut. 
Location : East wall. 

Documentation : Five extant bureaus have a history of Lincoln 

ownership; therefore, all bedrooms except one (probably the 
maid's) would have contained bureaus. See pp. 128-133 for dis- 
cussion of Lincoln bureaus. 
Source : LIHO 102. 

Object : Side Chair J. 5 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Late Empire or Cottage style. 



279 



BOYS' ROOM: ROOM J 

Location : South wall. 

Documentation : Period practice and oral tradition. 

Source : LIHO 35. 

Object : Washstand J. 6 

Date : ca. 1840-1850 

Brief Description : Cottage style washstand with cut out for bowl, 

drawer and shelf beneath; locally made, of cherry, walnut, ash, or 

sycamore. 

Location : South wall. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Washbowl, Pitcher, and Chamber Pot J. 7 

Date : ca. 1840-1850 

Brief Description : Ironstone set (if possible). 

Location : Washstand. 

Do cumentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Mirror J. 8 

Date: ca . 1840-1860 



280 



BOYS' ROOM: ROOM J 

Brief Description : Mahogany veneered frame, approximately 2V x IV 

Location : Over bureau. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : LIHO 84. 

Object : Print J. 9 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Framed, subject matter should appeal to small 

boys, i.e., animals or military subjects. 

Location : West wall. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Print J. 10 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Framed, subject matter should appeal to small 

boys, i.e., animals or military subjects. 

Location : East or south wall. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Sourc e: To be acquired (antique). 



281 



BOYS' ROOM: ROOM J 

Object : Dresser Scarf J. 11 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : White fringed rectangular cloth. 

Location : Top of bureau. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Two Brushes and Combs J. 12 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Wooden, with natural bristles. 

Location : Top of bureau. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Two Toothbrushes J. 13 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Wooden, with natural bristles. 

Location : On washstand. 

Documentation : A wooden toothbrush was found in the archeol- 

ogical excavations (see p. 79); period sources also mention bone- 
handled toothbrushes. 

Source : To be acquired (antique or reproduction). 



282 



BOYS' ROOM: ROOM J 

Object : Boys' Toys (4) J. 14 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Tin or wooden. Suggested items are toy sol- 
diers, a bow and arrow, marbles, train. 

Location : Bureau, bed, floor, or shelves and toy trunk. 

Documentation : Period practice. Robert was a member of the 

Springfield cadets; military toys would be appropriate in the room, 

Marbles were found in the archeological excavations (see p. 79). 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 



J. 15 



Object: 


Boys' Clothing 


Date: 


1840-1860 


Brief Description: 


Pants, jackets, shirts, 


Location: 


Bed or chair. 


Documentation: 


Period practice. 


Source: 


To be acquired (antique) 



OPTIONAL 



Object : Wall Shelves J. 16 

Date : Nineteenth century 

Brief Description : Two-tiered shelf. 



283 



BOYS' ROOM: ROOM J 

Location : South wall, west of window. 
Documentation : Period practice. 
Source : LIHO 549. 

Object : Toy Chest J. 17 

Date : ca. 1820-1860 

Brief Description : Wooden box with lid. 

Location : South wall. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : LIHO 87. 

Object : Table J. 18 

Date: ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Wood table. 

L ocation : West wall, north of bed. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : LIHO 75. 

MAID'S ROOM: INTRODUCTION 

The servant's room should be sparsely furnished with objects of a 
slightly older style than the other bedroom furnishings because 



284 



the older, less fashionable furniture in the house would have 
been the most appropriate for hired help. A few personal items, 
such as a pin cushion and cologne bottle, should indicate that 
the Lincolns' servant was a woman. (See pp. 14-17 for a discus- 
sion of the Lincolns' servants.) 

In an affidavit (Appendix IV) by Robert Kuecher listing his fam- 
ily's Lincoln artifacts, he recalled that his father purchased 
several items which had come from the maid's room at the Lincoln 
home. Kuecher reportedly bought a washstand, white toilet set, 
quilt, and a picture of a church and yard. Although Kuecher's 
statements cannot be documented (see pp. 138-141 for discussion 
of Kuecher artifacts), his memory of the contents of the maid's 
room does correspond to what household guidebooks recommended 
for the servant's room. Eliza Leslie in her Lady's House Book , a 
copy of which was owned by Mrs. Lincoln, advised the housekeeper 
to furnish the servant's room with a painted low post bedstead, a 

piece of carpet in winter, a washing table, a looking glass, sev- 

39 
eral chairs, and a closet or pegs for clothes. 

MAID'S ROOM: ROOM K 

See p. 333, for Summary of Furnishings and Cost Estimates. 

Object : Low Post Bedstead K.l 

Date: ca. 1830-1850 



285 



MAID'S ROOM: ROOM K 

Brief Description : Low post painted bedstead, made of a local 

wood (cherry, walnut, ash, or sycamore). 

Location : Against west wall. 

Documentation : No evidence of original furnishings; based on 

period practice. 

Source : LIHO 113. 

Object : Bedding and Bedclothes K.2 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Mattress, one feather pillow, two sheets, one 
coarse linen pillowcase, and a wool blanket. No bedspread is 
recommended . 

Location : Bed. 

Documentation : Period practice, see Eliza Leslie's Miss Les - 

lie's Lady's House Book (pp. 316-317) and see p. 144 for refer- 
ences to fabrics purchased and owned by the Lincolns. 
Source : To be acquired (mattress and pillow to be re- 

productions; sheets, pillowcase, and blanket to be antique if 
possible) . 

Object : Washstand K.3 

Date: ca. 1830-1850 



286 



MAID'S ROOM: ROOM K 

Brief Description : Plain Cottage washstand with turned supports 

and a cut out for washbowl and lower shelf; made of local wood 

(cherry, walnut, sycamore, or ash). 

Location : Against east wall. 

Documentation : Kuecher affidavit; present location unknown. 

(See Appendix IV and p. 138.) Period practice. 

Source : LIHO 114. 

Object : Wardrobe K.4 

Date : ca . 1830-1850 

Brief Description : Plain with paneled doors, shelves, and 
pegs, and turned or bracket feet; made of a local wood (cher- 
ry, walnut, ash, or sycamore). 
Location : Against east wall. 

Documentation : Period practice. A wardrobe of this descrip- 

tion has a history of Lincoln ownership (see p. 138, Lincoln 
Memorial Collection wardrobe) and would be appropriate for this 
room. 
Source : LIHO 1124. 

Object : Chair, Rocker K.5 

Date: ca. 1830-1850 



287 



MAID'S ROOM: ROOM K 

Brief Description : Caned seat and back. 
Locatio n: Against east wall. 

Documentation : Period practice. One chair of this descrip- 

tion with a history of Lincoln ownership are located in the Lin- 
coln Home collection and would be appropriate for this room. 
Source : LIHO 47. 

Object : Side Table K.6 

Date : ca. 1830-1850 

Brief Description : Two-drawer stand with turned legs, made from 
a local wood (cherry, walnut, ash, or sycamore). 

Location : North wall, near bedstead. 

Documentation : Period practice; no evidence of original fur- 
nishings. 

Source : LIHO 95. 

Object : Trunk K.7 

Date : ca. 1830-1850 

Brief Description : Chest on drawered stand. 

Location: West wall . 



288 



MAID'S ROOM: ROOM K 

Documentation : Period practice; no evidence of original fur- 

nishings; a common method of storage. This chest has a history 
of Lincoln ownership (see pp. 127-128) and would be appropriate 
for this room. 
Source : LIHO 97. 

Object : Print K.8 

Date : ca. 1830-1850 

Brief Description : A large print, in a plain wood frame, approxi- 
mately IV x 2V > hung from a hidden nail, with a religious sub- 
ject matter. 

Location : Over bed, north wall. 

Documentation : Period practice; no evidence of original fur- 

nishings. (See p. 138 and Appendix IV for evidence of Kuecher 
picture from maid's room.) 
Source : LIHO 749. 

Object : Mirror K.9 

Date : ca. 1830-1850 

Brief Description : Small mirror in a plain frame. 

Location: Over washstand, east wall. 



289 



MAID'S ROOM: ROOM K 



Documentation : Period practice; no evidence of original fur- 
nishings. 

Source : LIHO 115. 

Object: Chamber Pot, Slop Jar, and Pitcher K. 10 

Date : ca. 1830-1850 

Brief Description : White ironstone, need not be a matched set. 

Location : Washstand, slop jar on floor nearby, chamber 

pot at foot of bed. 

Documentation : Period practice; ironstone fragments were 

found in the privy excavations. 

Source : LIHO 753, Chamber Pot; LIHO 754, Slop Jar. 

Object : Washbowl and Pitcher K.ll 

Date : ca. 1830-1850 

Brief Description : Ironstone. 

Location : Washstand. 

Documentation : Period practice, ironstone fragments were 

found ir, the privy excavations. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 



290 



MAID'S ROOM: ROOM K 

Object : Cologne or Patent Medicine Bottle K.12 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : One molded glass bottle. 

Location : For table near bed. 

Documentation : Period practice; a variety of bottles were 

found in the privy excavation and one would be appropriate for 

the servant's room. 

Source : LIHO 761. 

Object : Pin Cushion K. 13 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Small, cloth covered pin cushion with pins. 

Location : For table near bed. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Brush and Comb K.14 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Wooden comb and brush set. 

Location : For table near bed. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 



291 



MAID'S ROOM: ROOM K 

Object : Bed Warmer Pan K. 15 

Date : ca. 1840-1860 

Brief Description : Brass pan with wood handle. 

L ocation : Near bed. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source: LIHO 760. 



HALLWAY: SECOND FLOOR: ROOM L 

See p. 334, for Summary of Furnishings and Cost Estimates 



Object : Chair L.l 

Date: ca. 1860 

Brief Description : Reproduction plank bottom, bamboo turned 

legs, painted. 

Location : South wall, alcove area. 

Documentation : Reproduction chair for NPS interpreter use. 

Source : To be acquired (reproduction). 

Object : Mirror L.2 

Date : ca. 1855-1860 

Brief Description : Tall mirror, either Rococo revival, or Gothic 

style with bracket shelf at base. 



292 



HALLWAY: SECOND FLOOR: ROOM L 

L ocation : North wall, alcove area. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

S ource : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Stand L.3 

Date: ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Pedestal stand with round top (approximately 

one- foot diameter) . 

Location : Southwest corner. 

Documentation : See p. 89 for original evidence of stands 

owned by the Lincolns. A flower stand also appears in the Les - 

lie's illustration of the sitting room. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Hall Chair L.4 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : One Gothic side chair. 
Location : In front of window. 

Documentation : One Gothic hall chair with a history of Lin- 

coln ownership descended in the Bateman family and it is possible 



293 



HALLWAY: SECOND FLOOR: ROOM L 

the Lincolns owned others (see p. 63). Period practice for hall- 
way furnishings. 
Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Prints (2) L.5 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Subject matter should be romantic or religious 

(suitable for a Presbyterian). 

Location : North and south walls, west of door to guest 

room. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Vase L.6 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : French or English porcelain (with flowers, 

artificial or real ) . 

Location : Mirror shelf. 

Documentation : Period practice. 

Source : To be acquired (antique). 



294 



HALLWAY: SECOND FLOOR: ROOM L 



Object: 


Plant 


Date: 


Type in vogue, ca. 1850-1860 


Brief Description: 


Ivy in a terra cotta pot. 


Location: 


Stand. 


Documentation: 


Period practice. 


Source: 


To be acquired (modern). 



L.7 



WINDOW HANGINGS: SECOND FLOOR: ROOMS G-L 

Object : Cloth Shades and G.35; H.24; 1.34 

Muslin Curtains J. 19; K. 16; L.8 

Date : Modern reproductions; style of 1850-1860. 

Brief Description : The shades should be on wooden rollers. The 

curtains should be hung from simple brass rods supported by brass 

brackets. For an example see Webster's Encyclopedia of Domestic 

Economy , p. 250, fig. 163. 

Location : All windows on the second floor. Maid's room 

should have shades only. 

Documentation : An 1860 photograph of the Lincoln home during 

the passing of a Republican rally clearly shows buff or white 

40 
colored linen shades in all the front windows of the house. 

One written reference (see p. 38) indicates that there were green 

shades in the Lincoln home. The photographic evidence is a more 



295 



WINDOW HANGINGS: SECOND FLOOR: ROOMS G-L 

reliable source and; therefore, buff or white shades are recom- 
mended. The shades should be the same color in every room. 

Muslin curtains were commonly used in second floor windows in 
average middle-class homes, and, because there is no evidence of 
fancier drapery, these curtains are recommended for use in the 
Lincoln bedrooms. The curtains may vary in pattern from room to 
room. Plain white would also be appropriate. 

Source : To be acquired (reproduction). Good quality 

reproduction fabrics are currently available from several New 
York fabric supply houses. It is recommended that the modern 
fabrics now hanging be replaced. 

FLOOR COVERINGS AND WALLPAPER: SECOND FLOOR: ROOMS G-L 

HALLWAYS, STAIRS 

Object : Carpet (modern, of commercial grade) L.9 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Many modern Brussels carpets have patterns 

similar to ingrain patterns. One of these should be used. A 
suitable alternative would be a plain color taken from the bed- 
room ingrains. 



296 



FLOOR COVERINGS AND WALLPAPER: SECOND FLOOR: ROOMS G-L 

Location : First and second floor hallways, stairway. 
Documentation : Period practice. Hallway floor coverings 
during the mid-nineteenth century were usually floor cloth, rag 
or Venetian, or ingrain carpet. The more expensive Brussels 
carpeting was not usually used in these areas of heavy traffic, 
except in the homes of the very well-to-do. Even in the White 
House, Mrs. Lincoln used six yards of oilcloth at the front 
entrance (probably a vestibule area). Oilcloth, rag, and ingrain 
carpet, however, are all fragile types of floor covering and will 
not withstand very well the constant visitor traffic at the 
Lincoln Home. These types of floor coverings are also not read- 
ily available today and reproduction is very costly. Brussels 
carpet is more readily available, less expensive, and much stur- 
dier. 
Source : To be acquired (antique). 

Object : Wallpaper L.10 

Date : 1850-1860 

Brief Description : Second floor hallway papers should be a con- 
tinuation of the paper used in the first floor hallway. 
Location : Second floor hallways. 



297 



FLOOR COVERINGS AND WALLPAPER: SECOND FLOOR: ROOMS G-L 

Documentation : Period practice, and see pp. 147-149 for evi- 
dence of wallpaper used at the Lincoln home. 
Source : To be acquired (reproduction). 

BEDROOMS 

The second floor, with the exceptions of the boys' room and 
maid's room, should be carpeted with reproduction ingrain carpet- 
ing, each room wall-to-wall. A higher quality ingrain in a pat- 
tern different from that used in the other rooms should be used 
in the two front bedrooms. Mary's room can be of the same pat- 
tern. The boys' and maid's rooms should have a piece of rag car- 
peting, not wall-to-wall. A section of the carpeting now in the 
maid's room is suitable. 

Most of the ingrain carpeting in place at this time appears to 
date from the last quarter of the nineteenth century and is not 
suitable for the Lincoln Home. One exception is the carpeting in 
Mrs. Lincoln's bedroom. This carpet could remain in place until 
its condition becomes too poor for exhibit purposes. 

Object : Rag Carpeting J. 20; K.17 

Date : ca . 1850-1860 

Location : Boys' room and the maid's room. 



298 



FLOOR COVERINGS AND WALLPAPER: SECOND FLOOR: ROOMS G-L 

Brief Description : Plain woven striped carpeting filled with 

wefts of either rags or woolen yarn. 

Documentation : Period practice. Rag carpeting was the least 

expensive alternative for floor coverings. 

Source : To be acquired (reproduction). 

BEDROOMS (Lincoln's Room, Guest Room, Mary's Room, and Boys' Room) 

Object : Wallpaper H.26; 1.35; J. 21 

Date : ca. 1850-1860 

Brief Description : All papers should be reproductions based on 
period designs (with the exception of Lincoln's room, the paper 
of which should remain). 

Location : Guest room, Mary's room, and the boys' room. 

Documentation : See pp. 147-149 for a discussion of the orig- 

inal evidence for wallpaper in the Lincoln home. 
Source : To be acquired (reproduction). 



299 



FOOTNOTES TO SECTION E 



1. Caroline Owsley Brown, "Springfield Society Before 
the Civil War," The Journal of the Illinois State Historical 
Society , XV, nos. 2-2, (July, 1909), p. 480. 



2. Advertisement, J. A. Hough, Illinois Daily Journal , 
May 11, 1849. 



3. Advertisement, J. Hutchinson, II 1 inois Daily Jour - 
nal , January 2, 1850. 



Ibid. , January 6, 1857. 



5. Andrew Jackson Downing, The Architecture of Country 
Houses (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1969), p. 429. 



6. There is little evidence concerning the Lincolns' 
holiday traditions. One reference indicates that they did have 
turkey at Thanksgiving. An article in the New York Tribune , De- 
cember 1 referring to November 29, 1860, stated, "Mr. Lincoln, 
like the rest of Anglo-American mankind, feasted on roast turkey, 
and having special cause to thank his Maker, attended Divine 
Service," quoted in William Baringer, Lincoln Day by Day (Wash- 
ington, 1960), p. 299. Christmas was celebrated in Springfield 
by a giving of gifts according to the Journal of Anna Ridgeley 
(Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society , XXII, no. 5, 
October, 1929, pp. 401-446). Valentine's Day was another holiday 
celebrated in Springfield. A. Birchall and Owens' advertisement 
in the Illinois State Daily Journal , February 13, 1850, read, "We 
anticipate that a thousand of these quiet, delicate and pleasing 
tokens of regard will be sent about in this city tomorrow." For 
further information on holiday decorations, see Katherine Menz, 
"Holiday and Family Celebrations in the Early Nineteenth Century," 
unpublished report, Harpers Ferry Center, The National Park Serv- 
ice, Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, December 1982. 



7. Harriet Chapman to W. H. Herndon, December 11, 1866, 
Herndon-Weik Collection, Library of Congress. 



300 



8. Letters to Herndon from John Hay, September 5, 1866 
in Emanuel Hertz, The Hidden Lincoln from the Letters and Papers 
of William H. Herndon (New York, 1938), pp. 307-308. 



9. N. W. Branson to Herndon, August 3, 1865, Herndon- 
Weik Collection. 



10. Isaac N. Arnold (a regular visitor to Springfield, 
1840-1860) was quoted in Harry E. Pratt, The Personal Finances 
of Abraham Lincoln (Springfield: The Abraham Lincoln Associa- 
tion, 1943), p. 94. 



11. Eliza Leslie, Miss Leslie's Lady's House Book 
(Philadelphia: A. Hart, 12th edition, 1850), p. 275. 



12. Geoffrey A. Godden, Encyclopaedia of British 
Pottery and Porcelain Marks (New York: Crown Publishing Co., 
1960), p. 193. 



13. Ibid., p. 667. 



14. G. Bernard Hughes, Victorian Pottery and Porcelain 
(New York: The MacMillen Co., 1959), p. 50. 



15. A. L. Bowen, "A. Lincoln; His House," Lincoln 
Centennial Association Papers (Springfield, privately published 
1925), p. 87. 



16. Harry E. Pratt, ed., "The Lincolns Go Shopping," 
Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society , Volume XLVIII, 
pp. 66-67. 



17. Ibid 

18. Ibid 



301 



19. Betty I. Madden, Arts, Crafts, and Architecture 
in Early Illinois (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1974), 
p. 172. 



20. Bowen, Lincoln Centennial , p. 87. 

21. Madden, Arts, Crafts , pp. 151, 175, 235. 

22. Leslie, Miss Leslie's , p. 230. 



23. Ruth Painter Randall, Mary Lincoln: Biography 
of a Marriage (Boston: Little Brown, 1953), pp. 102-103. 



24. Leslie, Miss Leslie's , p. 230. 

25. Catherine Beecher, The American Woman's Home 
(New York: J. B. Ford & Co., 1869771). 371. 

26. Leslie, Miss Leslie's , p. 183. 

27. Madden, Arts, Crafts , p. 110. 

28. Leslie, Miss Leslie's , p. 233. 

29. Pratt, Journal , pp. 66-67. 

30. Leslie, Miss Leslie's , p. 235. 

31. Randall, Mary Lincoln , pp. 102-103. 



32. Edwin C. Bearss, H istoric Structure Report: Lin - 
coln Home National Historic Site, Illinois (Denver: Denver Serv- 
ice Center, The National Park Service, 1973), Plate I. 



302 



33. Richard 0. Cummings, The American Ice Harvests , 
A Historica l Study in Technology, 1800-1918 (California: Uni- 
versity of California Press, 1949), pp. 59-60. 



34. Carl Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln (New York: Dell 
Publishing Company, Inc., 1954), Volume 1, p. 188. 



35. See Winterthur, Delaware, The Henry Francis du Pont 
Winterthur Museum, Joseph Downs Manuscript Collection, Inventories 
1840-1860. 



36. See Harold L. Peterson, American Interiors: From 
Colonial Times to the Late Victorians (New York: Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons, 1971) and Susan Lasdun, Victorians at Home (New York: 
The Viking Press, 1981). 



37. John Brucksch, Staff Curator, Harpers Ferry Center 
has purchased several mid-century photographs in their original 
frames with hanging attachments that indicate they were hung on 
the wall . 



38. See Sarah Olson, "Historic Furnishing Plan: William 
Howard Taft National Historic Site," The National Park Service, 
Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, April 1, 1979, p. 106. 



39. Leslie, Lady's House Book , p. 326. 



40. Edwin C. Bearss, Historical Base Map: Lincoln 
Home National Historical Park, Illinois (Washington, D. C. , 
Division of History, Office of Archeology and Historic Preserva- 
tion, National Park Service, 1969), Plate III. 



303 



SUMMARY OF FURNISHINGS AND COST ESTIMATES 

FRONT PARLOR: ROOM A* 
(See Section E, p. 165, for discussion of Recommended Furnishings) 



Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

A.l SOFA, ca. 1850-1860: Tran- LIHO 1060 $ $ 100. 

sitional between late Empire Repair 

and Rococo style with tufted of arm 
horsehair upholstery 

A. 2- SIDE CHAIRS, four, ca. 1850- LIHO 1116, 1117, 

A. 5 1860: Matching (of a set of 1118, 1119 

six), mahogany, late Empire 

style, horsehair upholstery 

A. 6 ARM ROCKER, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 19 

Carved floral motif on crest 
rail, tufted horsehair uphol- 
stery 

A. 7 FOOTSTOOL, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 39 

Turned legs, horsehair 
uphol stery 

A. 8 OPEN-ARMED ROCKER, ca. 1840- To be acquired 400. 

i860: Padded armrests, 
horsehair upholstery 

A. 9 FOOTSTOOL, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 65 

Turned legs, horsehair 
uphol stery 



A. 10 MIRROR, ca. 1850-1860: Gilt To be acquired 450. 
rococo pier mirror, with 
rounded top, 4' tall 



r Note: All items listed are to be antiques unless otherwise noted 



305 



FRONT PARLOR: ROOM A 



Description 

A. 11 PIER TABLE, ca. 1850-1860: 
Marble topped, cabriole legs 
with lower shelf 

A. 12 WHATNOT, ca. 1850-1860: 

Corner whatnot with 5 shelves, 
and scrollwork decoration 

A. 13 WHATNOT, ca. 1850-1860: 
5 shelves, spool turned 
supports, and machine-cut 
decoration 

A. 14 PARLOR STOVE, ca. 1855-1860: 
Gothic style on cabriole 
legs 

A. 15 STOVE IMPLEMENTS, ca. 1850- 
1860: To include: shovel, 
tongs, hearth brush and 
stand, iron, brass, and 
wood 

A. 16 OVAL PICTURE, ca. 1840-1860: 
Floral subject matter, hung 
from ceiling with picture 
cord and tassels, wax or 
hair 

A. 17 PRINTS, PAIR, ca. 1842-1850: 
Of George and Martha Washing- 
ton in oval gilt frames, hung 
from ceiling height with pic- 
ture cord and tassels 

A. 18 PICTURES, th^ee, in oval 
frames, ca. 1840-1860: 
Matching frames (if possi- 
ble), hung from nails, no 
cord showing. 



Source 



LIHO 1114 



LIHO 18 



LIHO 24 



Estimated Cost 
Purchase Repair 



LIHO 174 



To be acquired 



500, 



LIHO 168 



LIHO 169, 170 



400. 
Remat & 
repair 
frames 



To be acquired 



600. 



306 



FRONT PARLOR: ROOM A 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

A. 19 GIRANDOLE, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 150, 151, $ $ 200. 

Two single-arm candlesticks 152 
and one three-branch can- 
dlestick with glass prisms 

A. 20 CHINA PITCHERS, pair, LIHO 148, 149 

ca. 1850-1860: Two matching 
French ceramic pitchers 
with hand-painted scenes 

A. 21 BASKET, ca. 1840-1860: To be acquired 250. 

China with flower arrange- 
ment 

A. 22 VASE, ca. 1840-1860: Tall To be acquired 250. 

cut glass 

A. 23 DECANTER, ca. 1840-1860: To be acquired 150. 

Gl ass 

A. 24 SMALL ORNAMENTS, two, To be acquired 150. 

ca. 1840-1860: Glass or 
china 

A. 25 GLASS DECANTERS, two, To be acquired 450. 

ca. 1840-1860: Pressed 
or blown three-mold 
glass 

A. 26 ORNAMENT, ca. 1840-1860: To be acquired 250. 

China 

A. 27 DECANTERS, two, ca. 1840- LIHO 135, 136 

1860: Small glass decanters 

A. 28 SMALL VASES, three, LIHO 153, 696 

ca. 1840-1860: Glass or 697 
ceramic 

A. 29 BOTTLES, two, ca. 1840-1860: To be acquired 300. 

Blown glass with stoppers 



307 



FRONT PARLOR: ROOM A 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

A. 30 BOOKS, two, ca. 1840- LIHO 936, 938* $ $ 

1860: To have ornamental 
bindings 

A. 31 ASSORTED SEASHELLS, ca. 1840- LIHO 285-292 

1860: To include a trocus 

A. 32 ORNAMENTS, two, ca. 1840- To be acquired 500. 

1860: China 

A. 33 VOLK BUST OF LINCOLN, LIHO 134 

ca. 1860: To be a repro- 
duction of the original 

A. 34 DECANTERS, four, ca. 1840- To be acquired 800. 

1860: Pressed or blown 
gl ass 

A. 35 BUSTS, two, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 138, 137 

Parian ware 



A. 36 BOOKS, three, ca. 1840-1860: * 

With ornamental leather 
bindings 

A. 37 STATUETTE, one, ca. 1840- To be acquired 75. 

1860: Parian ware 

A. 38 VASE, ca. 1840-1860: To be acquired 100. 

Ceramic, double-handled 

A. 39 SET OF FIVE BOOKS, ca. 1840- To be acquired 125. 

1860: Matching, with orna- 
mental bindings 

A. 40 BOOKS, four, ca. 1840-1860: To be acquired 100. 

Oversized with ornamental 
bindings 



*Books from LIHO Collection to be used and rotated. 



308 



FRONT PARLOR: ROOM A 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

A. 41 DECANTER, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 161 $ $ 

Blown or pressed glass 

A. 42 BRUSSELS CARPET, ca. 1850- To be acquired 5,000. 

1860: Reproduction similar (reproduction) 
to Leslie's illustration, 



wal 1 -to-wall 

A. 43 HEARTH RUG, one, and AREA To be acquired 3,500. 
RUG, one, ca. 1850-1860: 
Hooked, yarn sewn, or 
pieces of matching Brussels 

A. 44 WALLPAPER, ca. 1850-1860: To be acquired 3,000. 
Reproduction similar to (reproduction) 
Leslie' s illustration 

A. 45 WINDOW HANGINGS, ca. 1850- To be acquired 2,000. 
1860: Reproduction cloth (reproduction) 
shades and cotton damask 
draperies 

A. 46 BRASS VALANCES AND TIEBACKS, To be acquired 800. 
ca. 1850-1860: Reproduction (reproduction) 



ROOM A - TOTAL: $19,750. $ 700, 



REAR PAKLOR: ROOM B 
(See Section E, p. 181, for discussion of Recommended Furnishings) 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

B.l SIDE TABLES, ca. 1850-1860: LIHO 3, 4 $ $ 

B.2 Elizabethan style, with (reproductions) 

spool turned supports and 

lower shelf 



309 



REAR PARLOR: ROOM B 



Description 

B.3 GLOBES, pair, ca. 1850- 
B.4 1860: Celestial and ter- 

restial, resting in short 

turned stands 

B.5 SIDE CHAIRS, ca. 1850-1860: 
B.6 Two of a set of six, match- 
ing those in the front parlor, 
horsehair upholstery 

B.7 SOFA, ca. 1850-1860: Transi- 
tional style between Empire 
and Rococo, serpentine back, 
tufted black horsehair uphol- 
stery 

B.8 SECRETARY-DESK, ca. 1840-1860: 
Large desk and bookcase with 
glass fronted doors, 6 shelves, 
fold-out desk top and paneled 
doors enclosing shelves be- 
neath, turned front legs and 
bracket rear legs 

B.9 TABLE, ca. 1840-1860: Round 
mahogany veneered or walnut 
center table with pedestal 
base 

B.10 GIRANDOLE, ca. 1850-1860: 
2 single-arm candlesticks 
and 1 three-branch candle- 
stick with prisms 

B.ll PITCHERS, pair, ca. 1850- 
B.12 1860: French or English 

porcelain with painted 

decoration 



Source 
LIHO 1, 2 



LIHO 1120, 1121 



LIHO 1059 



Estimated Cost 
Purchase Repair 



$ 



400. 



LIHO 6 



100. 
Restore 
desk top 
cover 



To be acquired 



500. 



LIHO 378-380 



To be acquired 



300, 



310 



REAR PARLOR: ROOM 8 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

B.13 BRUSSELS CARPET, ca. 1850- To be acquired $ 3,000. $ 

1860: Reproduction to match (reproduction) 
front parlor, wall-to-wall 

8.14 HEARTH RUG, ca. 1850-1860: To be acquired 2,000. 

Hooked or yarn sewn, or 
piece of matching Brussels 

B.15 WALLPAPER, ca. 1850-1860: To be acquired 3,000. 

Reproduction to match front (reproduction) 
parlor 

B.16 WINDOW HANGINGS, ca. 1850- To be acquired 1,500. 

1860: Reproduction cloth (reproduction) 
shades and cotton damask 
draperies to match front 
parlor 

B.17 BRASS VALANCES AND TIEBACKS, To be acquired 400. 

ca. 1850-1860: To match (reproduction) 
front parlor 



ROOM B - TOTAL: $10,300. $ 500. 



SITTING ROOM: ROOM C 
(See Section E, p. 187, for discussion of Recommended Furnishings) 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

C.l ROCKING CHAIRS, pair, To be acquired $ 2,000. $ 

C.2 ca. 1850-1860: Cane-seated, (reproduction) 
Cottage style, LIHO 45 
appropriate until reproduc- 
tions or antiques acquired 



311 



SITTING ROOM: ROOM C 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

C.3- SIDE CHAIRS, set of three, LIHO 41, 42, $ $ 

C.5 ca. 1850-1860: Cane or up- 53 

holstered seat, flat-sided 

cabriole front legs, carved 

crest rails and s-curved 

back 

C.6 LARGE TABLE, ca. 1850-1860: LIHO 40 

Oval walnut table with 
cabriole legs and scroll 
or claw-and-ball feet 

C.7 TABLE COVER, ca. 1850-1860: To be acquired 250. 

Rectangular, made of sten- (antique or 

ciled wool felt reproduction) 

C.8 SEWING TABLE, ca. 1850-1860: LIHO 1123 

Two-drawer pedestal stand on 
rectangular base with feet 

C.9 IRONWORK FLOWER STAND, To be acquired 500. 

ca. 1850-1860: Wire basket (antique or 

with handles mounted on reproduction) 
trestle style wire supports 

CIO PAINTING OR PRINT, ca. 1840- LIHO 282 

1860: Large picture with 
horse subject in gilt frame 
(2' x 3') 

C.ll MIRROR, ca. 1840-1860: In LIHO 1115 

gilt frame (3 1/2' x 1 1/2' 

C.12 GIRANDOLE SET, ca. 1840- LIHO 263, 264, 100. 

1860: One five-arm candle- 268 
holder and 2 single-arm 
candleholders with hanging 
prisms 



312 



SITTING ROOM: ROOM C 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

C.13 VASES, pair, ca. 1840- To be acquired $ 500. $ 

1860: Double handled on 
bases, French or English 
china 

C.14 CANDLEHOLDER, ca. 1840- To be acquired 250. 

1860: In the shape of a 
glass bottle or narrow 
vase 

C.15 DECANTERS, pair, ca. 1840- To be acquired 300. 

1860: Plain glass with 
stoppers, one with sloping 
shoulders, one with flat 
top 

C.16 BASKET OF APPLES, ca. 1840- To be acquired 100. 

1860: Wicker basket filled (reproduction) 
with artificial apples 

C.17 SPITTOONS, pair, ca. 1850- To be acquired 300. 

1860: Pewter, brass, or 
ceramic (not necessary that 
they match) 

C.18 STEREOSCOPE, ca. 1850-1860: LIHO 273 

Marked "A. Beckars, Patent 
April 7, 1857, Jas. Lee, 
N.Y. manufacturer." 

C.19 INGRAIN CARPET, ca. 1850- To be acquired 3,000. 

1860: Reproduction similar (reproduction) 
to Lesl ie' s illustration 

C.20 HEARTH RUG, ca. 1850-1860: To be acquired 2,000. 

Hooked 

C.21 WALLPAPER, ca. 1850-1860: To be acquired 3,000. 

Reproduction similar to (reproduction) 

Leslie's illustration 



313 



SITTING ROOM: ROOM C 



Description 

C.22 WINDOW HANGINGS, ca. 1850- 
Reproduction cloth shades 
and cotton damask draperies 

C.23 BRASS CORNICES, four, and 
TIE6ACKS, four pairs, 
ca. 1850-1860: Reproduc- 
tions similar to the 
Leslie's illustration 



Source 

To be acquired 
(reproduction) 



To be acquired 
(reproduction) 



Estimated Cost 
Purchase Repair 

$ 2,000. $ 



800, 



ROOM C - TOTAL: $15,000. 



$ 100. 



DINING ROOM: ROOM D 
(See Section E, p. 197, for discussion of Recommended Furnishings) 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

D.l TABLE, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 25 $ $ 

Drop-leaf, walnut, 
Cottage style 

D.2- CHAIRS, eight, ca. 1840- LIHO 59, 66, 77, 

D.9 1850: Set of eight fancy 79, 92, 98, 1061, 

chairs with rush seats 1190 

and stenciled crest rails 

D.10 SERVING TABLE, ca. 1840- LIHO 29 

1860: Late Empire style, 
with pedestal base, card 
table to be used as a 
serving table 

D.ll SIDEBOARD, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 33 

Cottage style, cherry or 
walnut of local manufacture 



314 






DINING ROOM: ROOM D 



Descriptio n 

D.12 FRAMED PRINT, large, 
ca. 1840-1860: With a 
hunting scene subject 

D.13 FRAMED PRINT, large, 
ca. 1840-1860: With a 
hunting scene or sti 1 1 
life subject 

D.14 TABLE LINENS, ca. 1840- 

1860: To include one linen 
and one cotton tablecloth, 
six linen and six cotton 
napkins, one crumb cloth 

D.15 CHINA, ca. 1840-1860: Four 
place settings and two 
serving dishes, blue trans- 
fer printed ware, and 
assorted ironstone and 
creamware, ca. 1840-1860 

D.16 CHINA, ca. 1840-1860: Two 
blue transferware dinner 
plates, to match LIHO 1019, 
1020-1028, and one serving 
piece to complete a table 
setting for six and/or six 
dinner plates and several 
serving pieces of white 
ironstone 

D.17 TEA SERVICE AND TRAY, 

ca. 1840-1850: To include 
six cups and saucers, tea- 
pot, coffeepot, sugar bowl, 
creamer, slop bowl of trans- 
fer printed Staffordshire or 
white ironstone, a japanned 
tin tray, and hot water urn 



Source 
LIHO 180 



To be acquired 



To be acquired 
(antique or 
reproduction) 



LIHO 1019-1028, 
192, 193, 195, 
197 



Estimated Cost 
Purchase Repair 



$ 



500. 



$ 



500 



To be acquired 



1,500, 



To be acquired 



2,500, 



315 



DINING ROOM: ROOM D 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

D.18 GLASSWARE, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 1013-1016 $ $ 

Four pressed glass goblets 

D.19 GLASSWARE, ca. 1840-1860: To be acquired 120. 

Two pressed glass goblets 
to match (if possible D.18) 

D.20 FLATWARE, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 1029-1040 

Coin silver, four place 
settings 

D.21 FLATWARE, ca. 1840-1860: To be acquired 300. 

Coin silver, two place 
settings 

D.22 CAKE STAND, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 255 

Pressed glass 

D.23 CASTOR SET, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 183-189 

Silver-plated or Brittania 
ware with glass condiment 
bottles 

D.24 INGRAIN CARPET, ca. 1850- To be acquired 3,000. 

1860: In dark colors (reproduction) 

D.25 WALLPAPER, ca. 1850-1860: To be acquired 2,000. 

Similar to paper shown in (reproduction) 
1865 stereoscope view 

D.26 WINDOW HANGINGS, ca. 1850- To be acquired 1,000. 

1860: Reproduction cloth (reproduction) 

shades and cotton damask 

draperies 

D.27 BRASS VALANCES AND TIEBACKS, To be acquired 200. 

ca. 1840-1860: Reproductions (reproduction) 
similar to Sitting Room 



ROOM D - TOTAL: $11,620. 



316 



KITCHEN-PORCH-STOREROOM: ROOMS E 
(See Section E, p. 208, for discussion of Recommended Furnishings) 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

Kitchen 

E.l COOK STOVE, ca. 1850-1860: LIHO 559 $ $ 

Cast iron Royal Oak 

E.2 STOVE IMPLEMENTS, ca. 1850- To be acquired 250. 

1860: To include shovel, 
tongs, and hearth brush, 
iron and wood 

E.3 HEAT SHIELD, ca. 1850-1860: LIHO, not 
square, tin or zinc numbered 



(reproduction) 

E.4 WORK TABLE, ca. 1840-1850: LIHO 125 

Scrubbed top, tapered or 
turned legs, one drawer 

E.5 SIDE CHAIR, ca. 1840-1850: LIHO 1062 

Painted with rush seats 

E.6 DRY SINK, ca. 1840-1850: LIHO 118 

Recessed top, cupboard 
below 

E.7 FLOOR CLOTH, ca. 1840- To be acquired 5,000. 
1850: Large square of (reproduction) 

oi lcloth 

E.8 CUPBOARD, ca. 1840-1850: LIHO 117 

Large with shelves and 
doors above and below, 
1 1 1 inois-made 

E.9 ROCKING CHAIR, ca. 1840- LIHO 126 

1850: Ladder-back with 
splint weave seat 



317 



KITCHEN-PORCH-STOREROOM: ROOMS E 



Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 



Kitchen 



E.IO BUTTER CHURN, ca. 1840- To be acquired $ 300. 
1850: Stoneware, made in 
Illinois, LI HO 480 may 
be used until an earlier 
one can be acquired 

E.ll OPEN SHELVES, ca. 1850- LIHO 548, 549 

1860: Two sets of hanging 
wall shelves, wood 

E.12 COFFEE GRINDER, ca. 1850- LIHO 578 

1860: Grinder with crank 
handle 

E.13 KNIFE CLEANING BOX, LIHO 495 

ca. 1850-1860: Wooden 
knife cleaner and 
sharpener 

E.14 SPICE CABINET, ca. 1850- LIHO 507 

1860: Small wooden cabinet 

with eight drawers for 
spices 

E.15 SALT BOX, ca. 1850-1860: LIHO 504 

Small, hanging, wooden 
salt container 

E.16 BROOM, ca. 1850-1860: LIHO 506 

Broom with hickory 
handle 

E.17 LAMPS, two, ca. 1840- To be acquired 500. 

1860: Small whale oil 
or lard lamps, blown 
glass or pewter 



318 



KITCHEN-PORCH-STOREROOM: ROOMS E 



Description 



Kitchen 



E.18 CANDLEHOLDERS, two, 
ca. 1840-1860: Iron 
or tin 

E.19 LANTERN, ca. 1840-1860: 
Glass and tin with 
carrying handle 

E.20 WALL BRACKET, ca. 1840- 
1860: Small wooden shelf 

E.21 CANDLEBOX, ca. 1840-1860: 
Tin, plain or with punched 
decoration 

E.22 UTENSILS, ca. 1840-1850: 
To include a variety of 
kitchen utensils, (see 
pp. 222-226 for list of 
those items in the LIHO 
collection which are ap- 
propriate and for a list 
of those items which could 
be acquired), to include a 
tin coffeepot, two wooden 
tubs, one wooden bucket, 
one egg beater, and several 
baking pans 

E.23 CURTAINS, ca. 1840-1860: 
Two pair, calico or check 
cloth, simple wood rods, 
on brackets 

Porch 

E.24 WOOD BOX, ca. 1840-1850: 
Chest-type with hinged lid 



Source 



Estimated Cost 
Purchase Repair 



To be acquired $ 200. 



LIHO 502 

To be acquired 
To be acquired 

To be acquired 



50. 



100, 



1,000, 



To be acquired 



100, 



To be acquired 
(reproduction) 



200. 



319 



KITCHEN-PORCH-STOREROOM: ROOMS E 



Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 



Storeroom 



E.25 ICEBOX, ca. 1840-1850: To be acquired $ 1,000. 

Insulated box with tin 
lining 

E.26 PIE SAFE, ca. 1840-1850: To be acquired 1,000, 
About 5 1 x 3' with punched 
tin in sides and doors 

E.27 LAUNDRY SUPPLIES, ca. 1840- To be acquired 500. 
1850 



KOOMS E - TOTAL: $10,200. 



FIRST FLOOR HALL: ROOM F 
(See Section E, p. 230, for discussion of Recommended Furnishings) 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

F.l HALL STAND, ca. 1850-1860: LIHO 51 $ $ 

Gothic style with small 
mirror, umbrella holder, 
and hat pegs 



F.2 PRINTS, two, ca. 1850-1860: To be acquired 400. 
Religious or romantic sub- 
jects in period frames 

F.3 HALL CHAIR, ca. 1850-1860: To be acquired 400. 
Gothic style with uphol- 
stered seat 

F.4 UMBRELLA, ca. 1850-1860: LIHO, not 

Bone or wooden handled. numbered 
black cloth 



320 



FIRST FLOOR HALL: ROOM F 



Description 

F.5 CANES, two, ca. 1850-1860: 
Wooden walking sticks 

F.6 WALL LAMP, ca. 1850-1860: 
Glass oil lamp in cast- 
iron bracket 

F.7 BRUSSELS CARPET, ca. 1850- 
1860: Reproduction in a 
period design, different 
from other first floor 
carpet designs 

F.8 WALLPAPER, ca. 1850-1860: 
Reproduction in a period 
design such as a geometric 
pattern 



Source 
To be acquired 

To be acquired 



To be acquired 
(reproduction) 



To be acquired 
(reproduction) 



Estimated 


Cost 


Purchase 


Repair 


1 200. 


$ — - 


350. 





2,000, 



2,000, 



ROOM F - TOTAL: $ 5,350. 



MR. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM G 
(See Section E, p. 243, for discussion of Recommended Furnishings) 



Description 

G.l BEDSTEAD, ca. 1840-1860: 
High post, spool turned 
oak. LIHO 57 may be used 
until a more appropriate 
one can be acquired 

G.2 BEDDING AND BEDCLOTHES, 
ca. 1840-1860: To include 
one mattress, two feather 
pillows, two sheets, two 
pillowcases, and one bol- 
ster 



Source 



To be acquired 
(antique and/or 
reproduction) 



Estimated Cost 
Purchase Repair 



To be acquired $ 3,000, 



$ 



300. 



321 



MR. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM G 



Description 

G.3 BEDSPREAD, ca. 1840-1860: 
A Marsei lies qui It 

G.4 BOOKS, three, ca. 1840- 
1860 

G.5 NEWSPAPERS, ca. 1840- 
1860: Springfield and 
other assorted papers 

G.6 CANDLESTICKS, pair, 

ca. 1840-1860: Pressed 
glass 

G.7 RAZOR, ca. 1840-1860: 
Marbelized handle and 
case 

G.8 RAZORS, two, ca. 1840- 
1860: Long handled 

G.9 RAZOR STROP, ca. 1830- 
1860: Wood and leather 

G.10 MUG, ca. 1830-1860: 
Small shaving mug 

G.ll SOAP, ca. 1830-1860: 
Shaving soap 

G.12 SHAVING BRUSH, ca. 1830- 
1860: Wooden handle with 
natural bristles 

G.13 PATENT MODEL, ca. 1840: 
Wooden model 



Source 



LI HO 808 



Estimated Cost 
Purchase Repair 



LIHO 341 



To be acquired 



LIHO 1057 



LIHO 343 



To be acquired 
(reproduction) 

To be acquired 



To be acquired 



$ 



To be acquired 100. 

(reproduction) 



LIHO 299, 300 



60. 



50. 



500, 



*Books from LIHO Collection to be used and rotated. 



322 



MR. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM G 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

G.14 SHAVING MIRROR, ca. 1840- LIHO 69 $ $ 

1860: Mahogany veneered 
oval mirror with scroll 
cut decoration and shelf 

G.15 TOILET SET, ca. 1840-1860: To be acquired 600. 

To include bowl, pitcher, 
soap dish, and chamber pot, 
ironstone 

G.16 FOOTBATH, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 332 

Tin 



G.17 SLOP BUCKET, ca. 1840- LIHO 331 
1860: Tin 

G.18 WATER CAN, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 333 
Tin 

G.19 TOWEL HORSE, ca. 1840- LIHO 68 
1860: Turned wood, of 
local manufacture 

G.20 BUREAU, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 1122 

Late Empire style, 
mahogany 

G.21 WARDROBE, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 58 
Double doors, walnut 

G.22 WASHSTAND, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 90 
With drawer and double 
doors below in Cottage or 
Elizabethan style. 

G.23 SIDE CHAIRS, ca. 1840- LIHO 31, 32 
1860: A pair in the late 
Empire style, cane seated 



323 



MR. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM G 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

G.24 TABLE, ca. 1840-1860: To be acquired $ 250. $ 

Small rectangular table 
or round pedestal table 

G.25 TABLE COVER, ca. 1840-1860: To be acquired 100. 

Green baize, 3'6" x 4' or (reproduction) 

3 '6" in diameter 

G.26 MIRROR, ca. 1840-1860: Wood, LIHO 61 

veneered, ogee molded frame, 
2 1/2' x 1 1/2' 

G.27 PRINTS, two, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 325, 326 

Subject matter should be 
historical or political in 
a pair of rectangular ogee 
molded frames, 18" x 12" 

G.28 BOOTJACK, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 334 

Wooden with extended nandle 

G.29 DRESSER SCARVES, two, To be acquired 50. 

ca. 1840-1860: White fringed 
cloths 

G.30 LAP DESK, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 308 

Walnut writing desk 

G.31 STOVE, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 330 

Cast-iron, wood heating 
stove 

G.32 STAND, SHOVEL, TONGS, LIHO 327, 328, 

ca. 1850-1860: Iron and 329 

brass 

G.33 HEARTH BRUSH, ca. 1850- To be acquired 75. 

1860: Wooden hearth brush 
with natural bristles 



324 



MR. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM G 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

G.34 COLLAR BOX AND COLLARS, To be acquired $ 100. $ 

ca. 1850-1860: Circular 
wooden box containing 
starched collars 

G.35 WINDOW HANGINGS, ca. 1850- To be acquired 800. 

1860: Cloth shades and (reproduction) 
muslin curtains 

G.36 INGRAIN CARPET, ca. 1850- To be acquired 2,500. 

1860: Reproduction ingrain (reproduction) 

G.37 WALLPAPER, ca. 1850-1860: LIHO Collections 

To match original still (reproduction) 
on the wall 



ROOM G - TOTAL: $ 8,490. $ -■ 



GUEST ROOM: ROOM H 
(See Section E, p. 257, for discussion of Recommended Furnishings) 

Estimated Cost 
D escription Source Purchase Repair 

H.l BEDSTEAD, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 71 $ $ 

Mahogany, French bedstead 

H.2 BUREAU AND MIRROR, ca. 1840- LIHO 60, 91 

H.3 1850: Late Empire and mahog- 
any veneered mirror 

H.4 WARDROBE, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 76 

Large late Empire style 

H.5 WASHSTAND, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 67 

Late Empire style with 
enclosed lower shelf 



325 



GUEST ROOM: ROOM H 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

H.6 ROCKING CHAIR AND FOOTSTOOL, LIHO 64, 20 $ $ 

H.7 ca. 1840-1860: Cane seated 

rocker with upholstered or 

caned footstool 

H.8 PRINT, ca. 1840-1860: Litho- LIHO 381 

graph or engraving in wood 
frame, approximately 
2' x 2 1/2' 

H.9 PRINT, ca. 1840-1860: Litho- To be acquired 250. 

graph or engraving in wood 
frame, approximately 
1 1/2' x r 

H.10 WASHBASIN, ca. 1840-1860: 
White ironstone 

H.ll MUG, ca. 1840-1860: White 
ironstone 

H.12 PITCHER AND SOAP DISH, 
ca. 1840-1860: White 
ironstone, painted 

H.13 SLOP JAR, ca. 1840-1860: 
Ironstone 

H.14 STOOL, ca. 1840-1860: 
Crude wooden stool 

H.15 DRESSER SCARVES, ca. 1840- 
1860: Two white cloth 
fringed scarves 

H.16 VASE, ca. 1840-1860: French 
or English painted ceramic 

H.17 WATER BOTTLE AND TUMBLER, 
ca. 1840-1860: Glass 



To be acquired 


100. 


To be acquired 


150. 


LIHO 384, 385 




LIHO 1056 




LIHO 48 




To be acquired 


50. 


To be acquired 


100. 


To be acquired 


100. 



326 



GUEST ROOM: ROOM H 



Description 

H.18 PIN CUSHION, ca. 1840- 
1860: Small velvet 
cornered pillow 

H.19 BEDDING AND BEDCLOTHES, 
ca. 1840-1860: Mattress, 
bolster, two feather pil- 
lows, two sheets, and two 
pillowcases 

H.20 BEDSPREAD, ca. 1840-1860: 
Quilted cotton chintz in 
a historic pattern 

H.21 STOVE, ca. 1840-1860: 
Cast-iron heating stove 

H.22 SHOVEL, TONGS, HEARTH 
BRUSH, ca. 1850-1860: 
Iron and brass with 
wooden herth brush 

H.23 SOFA, ca. 1840: Chaise 
with black horsehair 
upholstery and tufted 
half back 

H.24 WINDOW HANGINGS, ca. 1850- 
1860: Reproduction cloth 
shades and muslin curtains 

H.25 INGRAIN CARPET, ca. 1850- 
1860: Reproduction 

H.26 WALLPAPER, ca. 1850-1860: 
A reproduction in a period 
desi gn 



Source 



To be acquired $ 



To be acquired 
(antique and/or 
reproduction) 



To be acquired 
(reproduction) 



LIHO 374 



To be acquired 



LIHO 13 



To be acquired 
(reproduction) 



To be acquired 
(reproduction) 

To be acquired 
(reproduction) 



Estimated Cost 
Purchase Repair 

25. $ 



200. 



400, 



250, 



800, 

2,500, 
2,000, 



ROOM H - TOTAL: $ 6,925, 



$ 



327 



MRS. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM I 
(See Section E, p. 265, for discussion of Recommended Furnishings) 

Estimted Cost 
Descriptio n Source Purchase Repair 

1.1 BEDSTEAD, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 101 $ $ 

Low post, Cottage style 

with turned spindles 

1.2 BEDDING AND BEDCLOTHES, To be acquired 400. 

ca. 1840-1860: Mattress, (antique and/or 

bolster, two feather pi 1 - reproduction) 
lows, two sheets, and two 
linen pillowcases 

1.3 BEDSPREAD, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 828 

A Marsei 1 les qui It 

1.4 BUREAU, ca. 1820-1840: LIHO 1126 

Federal style, reeded 

pilasters and a swell 
front 

1.5 WOODEN BRACKETS, pair, LIHO 694, 695 

ca. 1850-1860: Small 

wooden shelves with 
scrollwork decoration 

1.6 COMMODE, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 104 

Manogany veneered 

1.7 WASHSTAND, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 106 

Late Empire style 

1.8 ROCKING CHAIR AND FOOTSTOOL, LIHO 56, 96 

1.9 ca, 1840-1860: Walnut lady's 
rocker and stool, caned or 
upholstered in black horse- 
hair 

1. 10 SEWING TABLE, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 46 

Small pedestal stand table 

with two drawers 



328 



MRS. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM I 



Description 

1. 11 MIRROR, ca. 1840-1860: 
Mahogany veneered, ogee 
molded wooden frame 

1.12 BRACKETS, pair, ca. 1840- 
1860: Wooden, scrollwork 
decoration 

1.13 OVAL PICTURE, ca. 1840- 
1860: Wooden frame with 
hair, shellwork, or 
pressed flower subject 

1.14 FRAMED PICTURES, pair, 
ca. 1850-1860: Photo- 
graphs of Tad and Willy 

1.15 BOWL, PITCHER, SOAP DISH, 
AND SLOP JAR, ca. 1840- 
1860: White ironstone 

1.16 COLOGNE BOTTLES (two), 
ca. 1840-1860: Glass or 
French china 

1.17 PIN CUSHION, ca. 1840- 
1860: Cloth covered 
cushion with pre-1860 
pins 

1.18 DRESSER SCARVES (two), 
ca. 1840-1860: White 
cotton fringed cloths 

1.19 CANDLESTICKS, pair, ca. 
1840-1860: Parian ware 

1.20 WICKER SEWING BASKET, ca. 
1850-1860: Oval basket 
with short sides and lid 



Source 
LIHO 103 



LIHO 727, 728 



LIHO 706 



Estimated Cost 
Purchase Repair 



LIHO 392, 393 
To be acquired 
LIHO 722, 723 
To be acquired 

To be acquired 

LIHO 350, 351 
LIHO 1003 



500, 



50. 



50, 



329 



*Books from LIHO Collection to be used and rotated 



MRS. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM I 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

1.21 TOWELS, ca. 1840-1360: To be acquired $ 50. $ 

Cotton 

1.22 VASE OR STATUETTE, LIHO 699 

ca. 1840-1860: English 

or French china 

1.23 BRUSH AND COMB, ca. 1840- To be acquired 100. 

1860: Wooden handled 

1.24 HAIR JEWELRY, ca. 1840- LIHO 714-718 

1860: Woven hair ornaments 

1.25 WOOL SHAWL, ca. 1850: Pink LIHO 744 

and yel low wool shawl 

1.26 FRAMED CUTOUT PICTURES, LIHO 729-731 

ca. 1850-1860: People 

mounted on black back- 
ground 

1.27 BOOKS, ca. 1830-1860: * 

Assorted 

1.28 PIECE OF SEWING, unfin- To be acquired 100. 

ished, ca. 1850-1860: (antique or 

Hand sewing on linen, reproduction) 

cotton, or wool 

1.29 FOOT TUB, ca. 1860: LIHO 768 

Earthenware 

1.30 WRITING BOX AND WRITING To be acquired 150. 

EQUIPMENT, ca. 1840-1860: 

Slant-top box, mahogany 
or walnut, pen Js paper, 
envelopes 



330 



MRS. LINCOLN'S BEDROOM: ROOM I 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

1.31 STOVE, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 705 $ $ 

Small parlor stove 

1.32 SHOVEL, TONGS, HEARTH To be acquired 250. 

BRUSH, ca. 1850-1860: 

Iron and brass and 
wooden hearth brush 

1.33 DRESSING TABLE, ca. 1840- To be acquired 500. 

1860: Small table with 

drawers and mirror, 
walnut or mahogany 

1.34 WINDOW HANGINGS, ca.1850- To be acquired 800. 

1860: Reproduction cloth (reproduction) 

shades and muslin curtains 

1.35 WALLPAPER, ca. 1850-1860: To be acquired 2,000. 

Reproduction based on a (reproduction) 

period design 



1.36 INGRAIN CARPET, ca. 1850- LIHO Collections 
1860 



ROOM I - TOTAL: $ 4,950. 



BOYS' ROOM: ROOM J 
(See Section E, p. 277, for discussion of Recommended Furnishings) 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

J.l BEDSTEAD, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 88 $ $ 

Low post Cottage style 
bedstead 



331 



BUYS' ROOM: ROOM J 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

J. 2 BEDDING AND BEDCLOTHES, To be acquired $ 400. $ 

ca. 1840-1860: To include (antique and/or 
mattress, bolster, two reproduction) 
feather pillows, two sheets, 
and two linen pillowcases 

J. 3 BEDSPREAD, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 801 

A coverlet or quilt 

J. 4 BUREAU, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 102 

Late Empire style, walnut 

J. 5 SIDE CHAIR, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 35 

Late Empire or Cottage 
style 

J. 6 WASHSTAND, ca. 1840-1860: To be acquired 400. 

Cottage style washstand 
with cutout for bowl, 
drawer and shelf beneath 

3.7 WASHBOWL, PITCHER, AND To be acquired 400. 

CHAMBER POT, ca. 1840- 
1850: Ironstone 

J. 8 MIRROR, ca. 1840-1860: LIHO 84 

Mahogany veneered frame 
2 1/2' x 1 1/2' 

J. 9 PRIiNT, ca. 1840-1860: To be acquired 200. 

Framed, a subject that 
would appeal to a small 
boy 

J. 10 PRINT, ca. 1840-1860: To be acquired 75. 

Framed, a subject that 
would appeal to a small 
boy 



332 



BOYS' ROOM: ROOM J 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

J. 11 DRESSER SCARF, ca. 1840- To be acquired $ 50. $ 

1860: White rectangular 
fringed cloth 

J. 12 BRUSHES AND COMBS, two, To be acquired 100. 

ca. 1840-1860: Wooden 
with natural bristles 

J. 13 TOOTHBRUSHES, two, To be acquired 25. 

ca. 1840-1860: Wooden (antique or 

with natural bristles reproduction) 

J. 14 BOYS' TOYS, ca. 1840- To be acquired 500. 

1860: Tin or wooden 
(soldiers, bow and 
arrow, marbles, train) 

J. 15 BOYS' CLOTHING, ca. 1840- To be acquired 400. 

1860: To include pants, 
jackets, shirts, collars 

J. 16 WALL SHELVES, ca. 1840- 
1860: Two-tiered shelf 

J. 17 TOY CHEST, ca. 1820-1860: 
Wooden box with lid 

J. 18 TABLE, ca. 1840-1360: 
Wooden table 

J. 19 WINDOW HANGINGS, ca. 1850- 
1860: Reproduction cloth 
shades and muslin curtains 

J. 20 CARPET, ca. 1850-1860: 
Reproduction rag 

J. 21 WALLPAPER, ca. 1850-1860: 
Reproduction 



Linu 042 






LIHO 87 







LIHO 75 







To be acquired 


800. 


.... 


(reproduction) 






To be acquired 


1,000. 


• — — — 


(reproduction) 






To be acquired 


2,000. 





(reproduction) 






ROOM J - TOTAL: 


$ 6,350. 


$ — - 



333 



MAID'S ROOM: ROOM K 
(See Section E, p. 285, for discussion of Recommended Furnishings) 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

K.l LOW POST BEDSTEAD, LINO 113 $ $ 

ca. 1830-1850: Painted, 
made of local wood 
(cherry, walnut, ash, 
or sycamore) 

K.2 BEDDING AND BEDCLOTHES, To be acquired 200. 

ca. 1840-1860: Mattress, (reproduction 
one feather pillow, two and/or antiaue) 
sheets, one pillowcase, 
one blanket. 

K.3 WASHSTAND, ca. 1830-1850: LIHO 114 

Cottage style, cutout top 
for washbowl, and lower 
shelf of local wood 

K.4 WARDROBE, ca. 1830-1850: LIHO 1124 

Plain with paneled doors, 
shelves, and pegs, made 
of local wood 

K.5 ROCKER, ca. 1830-1850: LIHO 47 

Caned seat and back 

K.6 SIDE TABLE, ca. 1830-1850: LIHO 95 

Two-drawer stand from 
local wood 

K.7 TRUNK, ca. 1830-1850: LIHO 97 

Chest on drawered stand 

K.8 PRINT, ca. 1830-1850: In LIHO 749 

wood frame 1 1/2' x 2 1/2', 
religious subject 

K.9 MIRROR, ca. 1830-1850: LIHO 115 

Small, in plain frame 



334 



MAID'S ROOM: ROOM K 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

K.10 CHAMBER POT, SLOP JAR, LIHO 753, 754 $ $ 

ca. 1830-1850: Ironstone 

K.ll WASHBOWL AND PITCHER, To be acquired 300. 

ca. 1830-1850: Ironstone 

K.12 COLOGNE OR PATENT MEDICINE LIHO 761 

BOTTLE, ca. 1840-1850: 
Molded glass 

K.13 PIN CUSHION, ca. 1840-1860: To be acquired 25. 

Small, cloth covered cushion 
with pins 

K.14 BRUSH AND COMB, ca. 1840- To be acquired 50. 

1860: Wooden comb and brush 
set 

K.15 BED WARMER PAN, ca. 1840- LIHO 760 

1860: Brass pan with long 
wooden handle 

K.16 WINDOW HANGINGS, ca. 1840- To be acquired 100. 

1860: Cloth shades (reproduction) 

K.17 CARPET, ca. 1850-1860: LIHO Collections 

Rag carpeting, area rug 



ROOM K - TOTAL: $ 675. $ 



SECOND FLOOR HALL: ROOM L 
(See Section E, p. 292, for discussion of Recommended Furnishings) 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

L.l CHAIR, ca. 1860: Reproduc- To be acquired $ 250. $ 

tion plank bottom, bamboo (reproduction) 
turned legs painted 



335 



SECOND FLOOR HALL: ROOM L 

Estimated Cost 
Description Source Purchase Repair 

L.2 MIRROR, ca. 1855-1860: To be acquired $ 1,000. $ 

Tall mirror, either Rococo 
revival or Gothic style 
with shelf 

L.3 STAND, ca. 1850-1860: To be acquired 500. 

Pedestal with round top 
(approximately 1' diameter) 

L.4 HALL CHAIR, ca. 1850-1860: To be acquired 500. 

In Gothic style 

L.5 PRINTS, ca. 1850-1860: To be acquired 500. 

Two in a romantic or 
religious subject (suit- 
able for a Presbyterian) 

L.6 VASE, ca. 1850-1860: French To be acquired 150. 

or English porcelain, with 
artificial or real flowers 

L.7 PLANT, ca. 1850-1860: Ivy To be acquired 50. 

in a terra cotta pot (modern) 

L.8 WINDOW HANGINGS, ca. 1850- To be acquired 800. 

1860: Reproduction cloth (reproduction) 
shades and muslin curtains 

L.9 CARPET, ca. 1850-1860: To be acquired 2,500. 

Brussels, reproduction in (reproduction) 
a pattern similar to ingrain 

L.10 WALLPAPER, ca. 1850-1860: To be acquired 2,000. 

Reproduction (same as first (reproduction) 

floor hallway) 

ROOM L - TOTAL: $ 8,250. $ 



336 



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350 



SPECIAL INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE AND PROTECTION RECOMMENDATIONS 

(Diana R. Pardue) 

This section contains instructions on maintaining a safe 
environment for museum objects in the historic house, performing 
necessary collection maintenance, and maintaining adequate secur- 
ity. See Part D for potential sources of assistance in imple- 
menting this section. 

A. THE ENVIRONMENT 

Maintaining a stable environment within a furnished building 
is crucial for long-term preservation of the historic furnish- 
ings. Part C contains a list of elements destructive to historic 
furnishings (Agents of Deterioration), and includes recommended 
light and humidity levels to sustain a proper museum environment. 

1. Temperature/Relative Humidity 

The park is installing a heating and air conditioning system 
in the Home so that the climate can be controlled. Once this in- 
stallation is operating, the relative humidity and temperature 
should be maintained constantly at the recommended level, without 
regard to time of day or season. Temperature and humidity read- 
ings can be taken on a regular basis to determine how well the 
climate control system is working. Recording hygrothermographs 
should be placed on the first and second floors, out of reach of 



351 



curious visitors, but in rooms containing historic furnishings. 
These weekly charts will indicate if there are any problems with 
the existing climate control equipment and help to justify any 
needed changes. 

An average internal relative humidity of 55% should be main- 
tained year round. Recognizing the difficulty of such precise 
control and taking into consideration the needs of the historic 
structure, an acceptable alternative is 45% or higher relative 
humidity in the winter and 65% or lower in the summer. Such a 
broad range in relative humidity is acceptable only if the change 
from the wintertime low to the summertime high, and back again, 
is slow and regular. The daily relative humidity should vary 
less than 5% and monthly variations should occur at a rate of 
1-2%. 

Ideally the inside temperature should be about 70°F year 
round. However, an acceptable temperature for winter is 60°F, 
and for summer 75°. Changes in temperature must also occur grad- 
ually following the same rates as with relative humity. 
( M anual for Museums , pp. 67-69; Conserve Grams 3/6 and 3/7) 

2. Light 

Controlling both visible and ultraviolet light will prevent 
fading and weakening of fibers in organic materials (wood, tex- 
tiles, paper, leather). 



352 



Ultraviolet filters that also filter some visible light 
should be placed on the windows in all of the furnished rooms. 
The window shades should also be used by lowering them as neces- 
sary to reduce the amount of direct sunlight coming into the 
rooms. 

Fluorescent lighting is more harmful to objects because of 
the higher ultraviolet levels. The fluorescent lights above the 
doors must be removed. Lighting from the hallway should be suf- 
ficient to allow visitors to see the furnishings and get a more 
realistic sense of what the house was like when the Lincolns 
lived there, before electricity. If any type of additional arti- 
ficial lighting is needed, incandescent lighting with low light 
levels should be used. 

The length of time the furnishings are exposed to light can 
be reduced by eliminating the fluorescent lights and completely 
lowering the window shades when no visitors are present. 
( Manual for Museums , p. 69; Conserve Grams 3/3, 3/4, and 3/5) 

3. Dust/ Insects/Rodents 

The park has a contract with a local company to fumigate the 
house monthly. This contract should continue. Once the climate 
control system is installed, the windows and doors should stay 
shut, eliminating a significant source of dust and insects. 



353 



Insect and rodent inspections by the park staff should occur 
weekly, and appropriate actions taken where needed. To minimize 
insect and rodent activity, food and drinks should not be allowed 
in the house. 

( Manual for Museums , pp. 65 and 69-77; Conserve Grams 3/9 and 
3/10) 

4. Fire 

As indicated in Section B, page 3, the house has a fire de- 
tection system that includes both ionization detectors and fixed 
temperature detectors. This system is connected directly to the 
Springfield Fire Department on a constant basis. Installation of 
a fire suppression system is now being studied by the Physical 
Security Coordinator in the Midwest Regional Office. In the 
meantime, hand extinguishers should be readily available in the 
Home and all staff members should know how to use them. 

The park should invite senior officials and battalion chiefs 
in the Springfield Fire Department to visit and inspect the house, 
to become thoroughly familiar with the Home and its furnishings 
so that they can fight a fire there with minimal damage from hose 
streams and possible forced entry. This visit should take place 
twice a year. 

An emergency action plan should be available for implementa- 
tion in the event of natural disasters, fire, civil unrest, and 



354 



bomb threats. It should delineate responsibilities of park em- 
ployees to minimize danger to life and property. The staff must 
be made aware in advance of actions designed to save the more 
valuable museum objects. A plan for the safe evacuation of visi- 
tors and staff must be posted. 

Fire drills held on a regular basis are one of the best ways 
to ensure the proper response to an emergency. Thinking out re- 
sponses ahead of time makes dealing with the real emergency much 
easier. 

Good housekeeping can be the most important single factor in 
the prevention of fire. No smoking should be allowed in the fur- 
nished sections of the house. 
( Manual for Museums , pp. 77 and 292-297; Conserve Gram 2/4) 

5. Security 

Protection of the furnishings is provided by visitor barri- 
ers, mechanical intrusion systems, and park employees. See Sec- 
tion B, page 3, for more detailed information on these three se- 
curity systems. 

The number of people visiting the house should not exceed 
fifteen per interpreter so that the interpreters are able to keep 
an eye on the visitors. Hopefully, the presence of the interpre- 
ters) will act as a deterrent to vandalism or theft. 



355 



Park employees must insist that visitors do not touch the 
furnishings. Only the Museum Aide and any necessary assistants 
should handle the historic furnishings and then as little as pos- 
sible, and only with clean hands. Metal objects should not be 
handled without clean cotton gloves. 

Small objects can be protected from unnecessary handling or 
theft by placing them out of reach of visitors, or securing them 
to large objects. Reproduction objects should be used in place 
of historic objects if proper protection otherwise cannot be pro- 
vided . 

Park employees should conduct walk-through examinations and 
visual inventories several times daily. Missing or damaged 
objects should be reported immediately to the Superintendent, and 
Incident Reports (Form 10-434A) completed and sent to the Region- 
al Office. 

The museum records system is an additional security device. 
An up-to-date system contains object locations and descriptions. 
Most of the furnishings are accessioned and catalogued but ob- 
jects acquired from the State of Illinois need to have the State 
inventory seals and metal I.D. tags removed to avoid any confu- 
sion. Additionally, some of the objects are numbered incorrectly 
or no longer have catalogue numbers on the objects. These ob- 
jects must be renumbered to ensure proper accountability. 



356 



Location files, part of the records system, should be estab- 
lished, using salmon-colored catalogue cards (Form 10-254A). 
Each card should contain the object name, location (building, 
room, where in room), a brief description, catalogue number, and 
accession number. These cards should be kept in the house and 
organized by room, type of object (chair, table, painting, etc.), 
and numerical sequence by catalogue number. 

Photographs showing object placement should be available for 
each room. Depending on size, rooms can be photographed in sec- 
tions of four or more, and labeled A, B, C, etc. The contents of 
closets can be included. These photographs can be kept on Print 
File Cards, (Form 10-30), and filed by room. The park has start- 
ed a security slide file of furnishings in the Home. This file 
should be completed and incorporated with the photographs showing 
object placement. 

( Manual for Museums , pp. 77-78, 79-82, 278-291, and 281-297; Con- 
serve Gram 2/4) 

6. Specific Conservation Considerations 

1. Objects should never be placed next to, or on top of, 
functioning heating or air conditioning ducts, which will dry out 
wood, textiles, leather, and paper objects. 



357 



2. When placing objects such as lamps, candlesticks, books, 
and other small objects on other materials (textiles, finished 
wood surfaces, paper, or leather), protective barriers should be 
placed between the objects to prevent the transfer of corrosion 
or chemicals, and to evenly distribute weight. Suitable protec- 
tive barriers are: acid-free cardboard; museum mat board (100% 
rag); or polyethylene foam. An example is placing a circular 
disc of acid-free cardboard between a candlestick and a finished 
wooden mantel . 

3. Pages of open books should be turned weekly to avoid ex- 
cess damage to any two pages or the spine of the book. 

4. No historic papers should be exhibited merely to recre- 
ate an historic scene; modern copies will have the same overall 
effect. Copies should be replaced monthly to create a fresh ap- 
pearance. 

5. Garments should be hung on either padded wooden hangers 
or padded pegs. Polyetheylene foam or cotton batting, covered 
with cotton muslin, forms good padding. Only very strong tex- 
tiles in good condition can bear the strain of hanging. 

6. All framed paper materials (such as prints and photo- 
graphs) should be matted with 100% rag board and framed according 



358 



to Conserve Gram 13/1. Photographs should be matted with 100% 
rag board that has not been buffered. 

7. Objects stored in drawers and cabinets need to be re- 
moved and stored correctly in the museum storage area. 

8. Real food can be displayed in the house only if it can 
be in sealable containers or removed from the Home when it is not 
open to the public (overnight and on holidays). Having food lay- 
ing around in the kitchen certainly brings life to the room but 
at the expense of attracting insect and rodent infestations. 

B. COLLECTION MAINTENANCE AND HOUSEKEEPING SCHEDULE 

The Superintendent is responsible for the collection; all 
collection maintenance, as well as cleaning materials, must be 
approved by her/him. The Museum Aide responsible for collection 
maintenance should receive curatorial training, available through 
the National Park Service and through other institutions as ap- 
propriate to his/her curatorial duties. 

General Rules for Handling Objects 

1. Be aware that the objects should be treated respectful- 
ly. Haste makes for bumped, scratched, and broken objects; al- 
ways schedule enough time to complete the task. Be thorough, 
but remember that over cleaning may be as harmful as no cleaning. 
Be gentle rather than enthusiastic. 



359 



2. Fingerprints leave deposits of dust, water, and oils 
where pockets of corrosion develop on metal objects. Always wear 
clean white gloves when handling metal objects (silver, brass, 
copper, steel, and iron) and leather objects. When the gloves 
become soiled, wash them in Ivory soap--do not use bleach. Al- 
ways have clean, dry hands when handling other types of materials. 

3. When moving any object, support that piece. Carry only 
items that can rest securely in both hands, and carry only one 
thing at a time. Never lift anything by its handle, spout, ears, 
rim, or any other protruding part. Support it from below at the 
base and at the side. Moving large pieces of furniture requires 
two or more people so that mishandling by tugging, pulling, and 
sliding is avoided. When several objects are moved that are 
small enough to fit in a basket, pad each object (along with the 
basket). Do not stack objects on top of each other. Do not al- 
low parts of objects to protrude from the basket (or any contain- 
er) while in transport. The loaded basket must be light enough 
to be carried easily. 

4. Moving objects displayed above fireplaces or on high 
shelves require two people, using a ladder. One person should 
ascend the ladder, and using both hands, carefully transfer the 
object to the person on the ground. Lids or any removable parts 
should be firmly affixed or removed before moving. 



360 



5. Carry chairs by their seat rails; large upholstered 
chairs should be carried by two people. In most cases, tables 
should be supported by the skirt. 

6. Plan ahead. Know where you are taking an object, what 
obstacles are on the way, and have the pathway cleared and padded 
if necessary. 

7. If something breaks, report it to the Superintendent. 
Save all the fragments and keep them together. 

General Recommendations for Using This Housekeeping Schedule 

1. Discretion and sensitivity must be applied in following 
this housekeeping schedule. Dusting and cleaning museum objects 
should be based on need and condition. Cleaning frequency may 
vary, depending on the location of the object in the house (for 
example, if it is close to an exterior door), the season of the 
year, and the level of visitation. Judgment should be exercised 
accordingly by the person with curatorial duties. The less han- 
dling an object receives, the longer it will survive. 

2. When dusting, the dust should be removed--not just 
pushed around. When some objects are dusted with a dry cloth or 
artist's brush, use a vacuum cleaner to pick up the dust that is 
lifted off of the object and into the air. Vacuuming is the best 



361 



method of dusting, but a variety of suctions should be used, de- 
pending on the stability and age of the object or surface. A 
plastic mesh screen should be used on fragile surfaces to relieve 
strain. Metal, glass, and ceramic objects on mantels or high 
shelves should be dusted in an area removed from the furnished 
area. When clean, they can be returned to their exhibit loca- 
tion. Be yery careful when handling these objects — this action 
requires two or more people. 

3. During seasons with lower visitation levels, the daily, 
weekly, and monthly tasks can be done with less frequency. Bian- 
nual tasks should be done in the spring and at the end of fall. 
Annual and biennial tasks should be done during winter months. 

Specific Recommendations 

Ceramics and Glass 

Once a year, ceramic and glass objects should be examined to 
see if additional cleaning is needed. Clean these objects ac- 
cording to the directions in Conserve Gram 8/2. Do not immerse 
unglazed portions of earthenware. Instead, wipe these sections 
with a damp cloth or artist's brush. 

Marble 

Dust with a clean cotton cloth. Once a year, examine to see 
if more cleaning is necessary. Clean by using a damp cloth. If 



362 



dusting is done on a regular basis, more cleaning should not be 
necessary. 

Textile s 

1. Vacuuming: Fibers should be tested initially for sta- 
bility. Turn the suction down to the lowest level. Carefully 
vacuum a small, unnoticeable section of the textile, holding the 
plastic mesh screen over the textile to eliminate strain. Then 
check the area vacuumed for loose fiber ends. If none are visi- 
ble, continue vacuuming the textile using the brush attachment. 
Use the plastic mesh screen on fragile areas to eliminate strain. 

Vacuum upholstered furniture using the upholstery attachment 
and, where needed, the plastic mesh screen. Place the screen 
against the upholstery and vacuum over it. Work dust out of cor- 
ners, pleats, and tufts with a clean brush attachment. 

2. Cleaning: Reproduction textiles can be dry-cleaned by a 
dependable dry cleaner, once a year or as needed. Historic tex- 
tiles should be cleaned by a professional textile conservator. 
If there is a question as to whether a textile can be cleaned by 
the curatorial staff, consult with the Regional Curator or the 
Textile Conservator in the Division of Conservation. 



363 



M etals 

1. Brass, copper, and silver objects should be polished and 
lacquered to avoid polishing every year. A coat of lacquer 
should last a long time (around 10 years); inspect objects yearly 
for tarnished spots, indicating that the lacquer needs replacing. 
(See Manual for Museums , pp. 66, 244, 249, and 258.) 

Lacquering can be done on contract. Contact the Regional 
Curator for assistance with this project. The Metals Conserva- 
tor, Division of Conservation, can be consulted for additional 
assistance. 

2. Iron and steel objects can develop rust and corrosion. 
If this occurs, see Conserve Gram 10/1 for information on fur- 
ther treatment. 

3. Stoves can be polished with stove blacking. 

4. Excessively dirty metal objects can be washed. Do not 
wash objects with sections made of other materials, such as bone 
or wood. If dusting is done regularly, washing should not be 
necessary. Washing should never occur on a regular basis. 

Procedure for Washing: 

Wash in warm water and non-ionic detergent; rinse in clear 
water and dry completely with a soft clean cloth. 



364 



5. Pewter should be polished only when absolutely neces- 
sary; a light coat of microcrystal ine wax is usually sufficient 
for protection. Wash only if the object is yery dirty; this dirt 
build-up should not occur if the objects are dusted regularly. 
Do not wash on a scheduled basis. 

Procedure for Washing: 

Wash in denatured alcohol; rinse well in distilled water and 
dry with a clean cloth. 

Fireplaces 

Procedure for Cleaning: 

Equipment: Soft, clean cloths, pail of clear water, 

gloves, sponge. 
Procedure: Vacuum clean. Damp wipe the hearth with a 

sponge dipped in clear water. Dry with a 

soft, clean cloth. 



Maintenance Staff Projects Accomplished in Consultation with Su - 
perintendent 



Windows 

Biannual Cleaning: The windows should be washed inside and out. 
No liquid should run onto the wooden framework. The Museum Aide 



365 



washes the interior of the windows; the maintenance staff washes 
the exterior. 

Equipment: Two people, ladder, chamois, pail, sponge, 

cleaning solution. 
Procedure: Dust window panes and surrounding framework. 
Dampen sponge in cleaning solution and use 
overlapping strokes to wash each pane. Re- 
move dirty water from the pane with chamois. 
Change water when it becomes dirty. 

Ventilation System 

Biannual Cleaning: Contact the maintenance staff and request 
them to clean the HVAC ducts and registers. The heating and air 
conditioning equipment should also be cleaned; any filters should 
be cleaned and replaced. 

Housekeeping Schedule 

Daily 

1. Vacuum floors and baseboards. Do first floor one day, 
second floor the next day. 

2. Dust stairway balusters and railings with a clean cotton 
cloth sprayed with Endust. Alternate floors as above. 



366 



3. Damp wipe surfaces extensively handled by visitors (room 
barriers, woodwork, entrance and exit door handles, and stair 
railings) . 

4. Vacuum floor covering for visitor traffic. 

5. Set clocks and wind as needed. 

6. Check condition of live plants and flowers. 

Weekly 

1. Dust finished wood furniture with a clean cotton cloth 
sprayed with Endust. Dust unfinished and painted wood objects 
with a clean cotton cloth. Dust all parts of the piece including 
the out-of-the-way places. Use a soft cotton swab if necessary 
(Conserve Gram 7/8). During periods of high visitation, dust- 
ing may be needed more often. 

2. Dust ceramic, glass, paper, baskets, and other small ob- 
jects on display using a clean dry cotton cloth. Use an artist's 
brush on intricately decorated objects and art objects. Do the 
first floor one week, the second floor the next week. Dusting 
can be done on a weekly basis if needed because of high visita- 
tion. 



367 



3. Vacuum leather materials, books, and lamp shades, using 
a gentle suction through the plastic screen. Wear clean cotton 
gloves. Do floors alternately as above. 

4. Dust metal objects and marble, using a clean, dry cotton 
cloth. Always wear clean cotton gloves when handling metal. Do 
floors alternately as above. 

5. Clean soiled gloves in Ivory soap; rinse and dry. 

6. Water live plants; change flowers if needed. 

7. Change vacuum cleaner bag. 

8. Vacuum hearths, mantels, and fireplaces. 

9. Spot clean floor covering for visitor traffic. 

10. Check for evidence of insects and rodents. (See Manual 
for Museums , pp. 71-77.) 

Monthly 

1. Vacuum the curtains, window shades, and lighting fix- 
tures. 

2. Vacuum upholstery on historic furniture, using gentle 
suction and a clean upholstery attachment. Fragile areas should 
be vacuumed through a plastic mesh screen to decrease strain. 



368 



Always vacuum in the direction of the nap if the material has a 
nap. 

3. Dust frames (picture and mirror), using a lens brush, or 
with carved gilt frames, blow with a small ear syringe (do not 
touch the frame with the tip). 

4. Glass on mirrors and pictures may be damp wiped (if 
needed), using a sponge dipped in glass cleaner (Conserve Gram 
8/2) and squeezed almost dry. Do not let the moisture get on the 
frame or under the glass. 

5. Replace scattered paper with fresh sheets. 

6. Refold folded textiles along different lines to reduce 
stress. 

7. Spot clean walls with a clean, water damp cloth and dry. 

8. Vacuum tops of doors, window sills, bookcases, and other 
ledges in reach of the floor. 

9. Examine exhibited objects to determine if active deteri- 
oration is occurring and if specialized conservation treatment is 
needed. 

10. Damp mop/buff the ceramic tile and wood floors. 



369 



Semi-Annual 

1. Vacuum ceilings, high walls, and other areas requiring 
ladders for access. 

2. Clean kitchen floor following procedures in the Manual 
for Museums , pp. 222-231. 

3. Wash and dry windows. 

4. Clean ducts and registers. 

5. Clean or replace filters in the heating and air condi- 
tioning systems; clean this equipment. 

6. Take objects out of cupboards and bookcases; dust ob- 
jects as well as shelves, using a clean, dry cotton cloth. 

Annual 



1. Check metal objects for corrosion, rust, or tarnish; 
treat if necessary. 

2. Wash and dry ceramic and glass objects, if necessary 
(Conserve Gram 8/2). 

3. Clean woodwork (not furniture) by wiping with a clean, 
damp cloth and dry immediately. 

4. Clean hearth, mantel, and fireplace (only if necessary). 



370 



5. Dry clean or wash reproduction curtains and bed linens 
if needed. 

6. Clean floor covering for visitor traffic. 

7. Black stoves if needed. 

Biannual 

1. Clean and wax finished wood furniture (Conserve Grams 
7/2 and 7/3). 

2. Damp wipe and dry painted wood and raw wood objects, 
using a clean cloth with water (Conserve Gram 7/2). 

3. Clean exposed wood floors by stripping, waxing, and 
buffing (Conserve Gram 7/4). 

4. Dry clean reproduction drapes if needed. 

C. AGENTS OF DETERIORATION 

Proper care of a museum collection consists of reducing the 
rate of deterioration to a minimum by housing the collection in a 
safe environment. A safe environment will prolong the life of an 
object and minimize conservation treatment. Prevention is always 
better than treatment. 

The Manual for Museums includes a chapter on caring for a 
collection. The sections on agents of deterioration (pp. 67-82) 



371 



and climate control (pp. 83-91) should be read carefully. An- 
other good source to become familiar with is The Museum Environ - 
ment by Garry Thomson. It contains useful information on light- 
ing, humidity, and air pollution. 

Damaging conditions are: 

Too much or too little humidity 

45% - 65% is an ideal range; metals and photographs do best 
at 40% or below. At very low levels, organic materials dry out 
and become brittle; at high levels mold may develop on organic 
materials and metal will begin to corrode. Manual for Museums , 
pp. 67-68 and 83-89. 

Too much or too little temperature 

60°-70°F is the best range, cool enough to prevent mold but 
warm enough to permit working comfortably. The greatest danger 
lies in the variation of temperatures. Rapid and wide variations 
can cause dangerous expansion and contraction of some objects. 
Manual for Museums , pp. 68-69, 83-86, and 89. 

Too much 1 iqht * 

50 Lux - Textiles, watercolors, prints and draw- 
(5 Footcandles) ings, paper, wallpapers, dyed leather, 

most natural history objects (botanical 
specimens, fur, feathers, etc.). 



372 



150 Lux - Oil and tempera paintings, undyed leath- 
(15 Footcandles) er, horn, bone, ivory, and oriental lac- 
quer. 

300 Lux - Other objects. 
(30 Footcandles) 

*Garry Thomson, The Museum Environment (London: Butterworths, 
1978), 23. 

Ultraviolet light should be filtered out. The length of 
time an object is exposed to light is equally important. Use 
light only when necessary. Manual for Museums , pp. 69, 86, and 
90-91. 

Chemical Air Pollution 

Common air pollutants include industrial fumes, motor vehi- 
cle exhausts, and salts from the ocean. Materials such as unsea- 
soned woods, paints containing lithopone (in the pigment), un- 
painted hardboard, acidic papers and plastics also release harm- 
ful vapors. These materials should be avoided in construction of 
exhibit cases or storage equipment. Manual for Museums , pp. 70 
and 91. 

Dust 

It acts as an abrasive, provides nuclei for moisture conden- 
sation and will soil the surface of objects. Once an object is 



373 



covered with dust, the removal process can accelerate wear and 
increase the possibility of physical damage. Manual for Museums , 
pp. 69-70 and 91. 

Mold (also called mildew) 

This growth probably destroys more objects than anything 
else. It will grow on any organic object in an atmosphere of more 
than 65% RH and 80°F. Look for velvety patches or areas of dis- 
coloration. Avoid warm, damp environments. Manual for Museums , 
pp. 70-71 and 39. 

Insects 



The most common insects to watch for are powder-post bee- 
tles, clothes moths, silverfish, dermestid beetles, and cock- 
roaches. Their damage is rapid and irreversible. Manual for Mu - 
seums , pp. 71-76. 

Rodents 

In a \/ery short time these animals can destroy a collection 
by their eating and nest-making. Watch for droppings, signs of 
gnawing and rodents themselves. Manual for Museums , p. 77. 

Fire 

A fire can wipe out an entire collection wery quickly. Keep 
flammables in special fire-resistant containers. Work out a fire 



374 



emergency action plan with staff and local fire-fighting organi- 
zation. Manual for Museums , p. 77. 

Humans 

Human hazards to the collection are careless handling (by 
visitors and staff), vandalism, and theft. The security of the 
collections depends primarily upon the staff. Manual for Mu - 
seums , pp. 77-82. 

D. SOURCES OF ASSISTANCE 

Persons responsible for the care and protection of museum 
objects should be familiar with Ralph Lewis' Manual for Museums 
(National Park Service, GPO, 1976), the Conserve Gram series, 
and the NPS Museum Handbook . Sections in the Manual for Museums 
which are particularly useful for implementing these recommenda- 
tions are Chapter 4, "Caring for a Collection," pp. 61-112; 
Chapter 11, "Housekeeping," pp. 204-259; and Chapter 12, "Protec- 
tion," pp. 260-298. 

Other useful publications are: 

Committee on Libraries, Museums, and Historic Buildings. Protec - 
tion of Museums and Museum Collections 1980 . NFPA 911. Bos- 
ton: National Fire Protection Association, Inc., 1980. One 
of the best sources on fire protection and prevention, spe- 
cifically written for museums. 



375 



Edwards, Stephen R. , Bruce M. Bell, and Mary Elizabeth King. 

Pest Control In Museums: A Status Report . Lawrence, KS: Asso- 
ciation of Systematic Collections, 1980. a good guide to 
pesticides, their use in museums, and common insect pests. 

Thomson, Garry. The Museum Environment . London: Butterworths, 
1978. An excellent source of information on light, humid- 
ity, and air pollution. 

Useful audiovisual programs are: 

"Housekeeping Techniques for the Historic House," "Museum Fire 
Security," and "Site Security." These programs are produced 
by the American Association of State and Local History. 

Additionally, the Regional Curator, Midwest Regional Office, 
and the Curatorial Services Division, WASO can provide assistance 
and further information for managing the museum collection. 



376 



LIST OF APPENDICES 

Page 

APPENDIX I : 379 

J. M. Fordin Affidavit which accompanied sofa 
(accession no. 1920.246) now at the Chicago 
Historical Society, Chicago, Illinois. 

APPENDIX II : 387 

Mary Edwards Brown Affidavit, May 2, 1925, 
Lincoln Home files, Illinois State Historical 
Society Library. 

APPENDIX III : 393 

Fannie Somerville Affidavit, December 12, 1934. 

APPENDIX IV : 395 

Robert Watson Kuecher Affidavit, 1962. 

APPENDIX V : 399 

Lincoln-Associated Furniture at LIHO. 

APPENDIX VI : 403 

Articles of Clothing Purchased by the Lincolns 
in Springfield. 

APPENDIX VII : 409 

Items loaned to the Illinois State Historical 
Society Library from 1924 to 1927 from the 
Oliver R. Barrett Collection. 



377 



APPENDIX I 



J.M. Fordin Affidavit 



379 



AfftNDlX 1 



CHICAGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



Accession No 1920.2^-6 

Negative No 



n„„ March 30. 1920 



Source Purchased by the Society 

Collection: Charles F. Gunther 



Object Sofa 

Country United States 

Date c . 1850-1855 

Dimensions H:32j" W:27^" L:6'3|' Condition Good 



Material Mahogany, horsehair 
Artist or Maker Victorian style 



Description Sofa v/ith mahogany frame and transitional serpentined-arched top rail with 
a carved fan shaped design in center. It is upholstered in black horsehair. 



Remarks 

Owned and used by Abraham 
Lincoln(l809-1865) at the 
time of his election to 
the Presidency (i860). 

Bought of Mrs. Lincoln by 
J. M. Fordin, and removed 
by him from Mr. Lincoln's 
residence the day before 
his departure for Washin-ton 
City, February 1861. Property 
sold on 27th day of April, 
1887, to George W. Forden. 

See Axithority File 



Subject Headings 

BTOCTAPHY - T.TNCOT.fl, ABPa.HAM (1809-1860 - H3SSD3HC3S 

Fir m rc Tra q - s o f a 



380 



Attends to Stock Sales any PlacB in the State, Will Sell all kinds of Merchandise. 



u+, 'tLo4 r^*44c4Li++ t , i "^kL> &£l>Wl, dsL" rflJ* /*-£* /^fc<-*^*<V V^lL f*~<^,M^~~p ** 
flic /4~&>u* Zc**. cut- 0A*-t*- «r*^*c* J™**+~ y*y-*LL4+ Z*> "Ttn^ti. <■<■ „ 

fc^'CMJ CL*-<f £~ £a^±4~ tA* fcL^y/C^'C & ^4^^*t^/- ^£"" /l t .«^ *±*-+^cu*o «-^/£-ifr**-— 

sf- «<f hail, <iii~ * ^***JX- Sp 3ZL £Jy 2?C sL**?,.. 

381 






-i 1 -aSi V_ V^J "3fc 1 >=_i. £.-.« 




Dealer \r\ Rea\ ^Ls\.3.Ve, 

Attends to Stock SalBs any Place in ths State, Will Sell all kinds of Merchandise, 



- — ./S&F 



r ,i6t~> jr^y^C-i^ i^*~yt>~M*<s4 n^r-^^ /^a^ /A^c^s^ ^*-^v <Pc^t^--7y£^*~ -Tc^L**- 
iXJ -ZL<^ 4<*-*l4. -L+<±0 Jl+/&^ /Cl. /L*t~if O^-* S^Zs^-4 £>-*-<- *lj£ /C^-z. <s*-<^ &-c£y~X-~ a^ 

:l-M-fiL&-^4 / ia~j~<^ /ix^6c d^t^L^tp^- ±h-a- .(-^" /^~*~ -^ZLc* 




382 



State of Illinois, 

Sangamon County, 

J.M.Forden of the City of Springfield, County of Sangamon, and 
State of Illinois, being duly sworn, deposes and says that the f611fcwing 
described article of furniture, now owned and possessed by G.W»Forden, to-wit 
One Mahogany Sofa, which was owned and used by Abraham Lincoln at the time of 
his election to the presidency of the. U.S. and that said furniture was 
bought of Mrs Lincoln by said J.M. Forden,ahd by him removed from 
Mr Lincoln's" residence the day before his departure fofc. Washington City 
in^F^i^a^.- 1861. 

Subscribed ,ajid sworn to before me this Ilth day of May. 1887. 

■ ■:■' '/ J P %>/ ^^£2^^ j 

J.T.lVright^ of said City, County and State being duly sworn, says that he is 
well acquanted with the said J.M.Forden, and is personally cognizant of the 
f actuated' yr\ above affidavit, and that the same are true. 

Subscribed* and sworn to before me this Ilth day of May 18^7. 

Turney' English of said City, County and State, being duly sworn,says that he 
was Auctioneer of above described property and was sold on the 27th dayof 
April 1887, to Geo W.Forden,of Sangamon County,State of Illinois, he-, being 
the highest bidder. ^ 

Subscribed and" isworn to before me this Ilth, day of May 1887, 




S.H.GehlMri fur'tHer deposes, and says that he was Clerk at said sale, and 
lid proper ty," "Was sold as stated above* 



383 



FORM 27ft. 



THE CHICAGO & ALTON RAILROAD CO. 



Receiued fro 




the, package* numbered nud.de, 
the line of tills Road from 




nt good order (Contents and value unknown) to be transported urn 
to 



rotation, and delivered In like gocyorder to the consignee or owner, at said Station last mentioned, or (if tlie~B!rme are to be ior- 
'warded beyond said Station) 4f any Company or Carrier receiving, or which may receive freight from said CHICAGO AND 
ALTON RAILROAD COMPANY, for the purpose of transporting the same tov/ards the place of destination of said goods or 
packages; and the CHICAGO & ALTON RAILROAD COMPANY guarantees f^at the rate of freight for transportation of 

Mid package* from the place ot/shipment to r~ 



shall not exceed 



_P e ''_ 



_aiid charges_ 



advanoejWiy this Company 

SUBJECT NEVERTHELESS TO THE FOLLOWIN 

Tho doty of this Company shall be considered fully performed and accomplished and thSflatJfilt ■ _. 
the arrival of the goods or property ot said station, or liy delivery or tender to carrier as abu*e provided 

This Company shall have the right, at any time after the arrival of said goods, in case they he 
bouse at the exjieiise and risk of owner. . ' gi _v.. 

This Company shall not be responsible for any damages occasioned bv delay from. any cbd!«, 1 
or Crockery, injury to the hidden contents of packages, or for dec«v of perishable aniples, o ' 
when received at their depot; nor 6hall It be responsible for a greater amoimt-tban Two Uun_ 
upon iMvinent of extra rate; or for loss or damage to goods occasioned by providential causes 

All rlulins for damages or shortage shall be made before the goods are taken away from 

In the event of the loss of any property for which this Company may be responsible 
of shipment Is to be taken as the measure of damage; and the Company, in case of loss o, 
Coinimiy may lie liable, shall have the benefit of any insurance effected by or on f 

Gniipowder, Krlctlon Matches, and the like combustible artloles, will lie taken 
the shipper or consignee will be held responsible thei-efor. 

* Freight to be paid according to weight by this Company^ scales. All pac 

* No agent of tho Company Is authorized to contivct for the transportation 
transiioriatlon of freight within any special time. 

The Company will only bo responsible as warehousemen after the arrival of f 




ni^ia U i .ulna! t^l, w. 

store the same in any wars' 

breakage of Gilts*, Glassware 
by reason of Improper packing 
, except by special agreement ana 
anslt at station, 
frered. 
lue or cost thereof, at the point Or 'tlma 
ods named in this receipt, for which the 
J good*. • •* 

; and, If otherwise sblppied. In case of damage, 

Fooperage when necessary, 
(stations on its line, or to mak e any contract for th# 

destination on the line of this company. 



MARKS AND CONSIGNEES. 



<2. 




384 








To/R. H. ARMBRUSTERDr. 

(_^^ I'tOIB III AND XAMCrACrtTRBB OF 

Parlor Furniture, Mattresses, Feathers and Bedding. 

STEAM FEATHER RENOVATING. 



UPHOLSTERING A SPECIALTY 

323 BOUTH FIFTH ST. 
Mltf n of tlie Swan. 



v . ii jMUjpjjT^aiTri rr ii.-. -inmnrii^ a zri ^t/PTT ' u 'a c f Hyj-j a faTi ii ^riys gs iwi 



r i n ii yi a giwr-rrri -nuarac -gr^ngy -gs 



50D3r-jiBif«irgti:^o. TT ii gfji'/L a nt wr i rnrdrj id 




/Z* 



i 




7 J??t 



&| c..^€^^^j?^/^^«^fyh 



^ 



^/ ^ 




^//^U^m 









385 



■ 









■ 




386 



APPENDIX II 



Mary Edwards Brown Affidavit 



387 



APPENDIX II 



State of Illinois ) 

) SS 
County of Sangamon ) 



I, Mary Edwards Brown, of the City of Springfield, in 
the county and State aforesaid, do hereby certify that I am 
the grand-daughter of that Ninian Edwards who, in 1833 mar- 
ried Elizabeth P. Todd, a sister of Mary Todd, afterwards 
the wife of Abraham Lincoln; that Mary Todd lived with her 
sister, Mrs. Ninian Edwards, and was married to Abraham Lin- 
coln at her home in Springfield, Illinois; and that the ar- 
ticles hereinafter enumerated belong to me, having come into 
my possession by inheritance from various members of the 
Edwards family: 

1. 

3 astral or sperm oil lamps with their original globes, 
which furnished the lights for Abraham Lincoln's wedding at 
the N. W. Edwards home. 

2. 

An old Sheffield tray which was used at the wedding. It 
once belonged to Governor Ninian Edwards. 



Sofa which Lincoln courted his wife on (hair cloth on 
back original ) . 



Mahogany sideboard which held the cake for wedding, once 
property of Governor Ninian Edwards. 



Mahogany table which Abraham Lincoln often played chess 
on in the Edwards home. 

6. 

Work basket of Mrs. Abraham Lincoln. 



388 



Bill book used and carried by Abraham Lincoln while in 
Springfield, Illinois. 

8. 

Several books of Mrs. Abraham Lincoln with her name in 
book, in her own handwriting. 



Original bank check of Abraham Lincoln. Original cam- 
paign tickets. Legal documents in frame, in Abraham Lincoln's 
own handwriting. 

10. 

Interest receipt to N. W. Edwards in Lincoln's hand- 
writing. 

11. 

3 original letters of William Wallace Lincoln to Henry C. 
Remann. 

12. 

Old haircloth mahogany rocker which Abraham Lincoln often 
sat on, holding the children on his knees. 

13. 

Paper lanterns which were used to decorate Mrs. Remann's 
porch during Lincoln campaign for President. 

14. 
Carriage robe used by the Lincoln family. 

15. 
Penholder set, property of Abraham Lincoln. 

16. 
Tablecloth which was used for the wedding meal. 



389 



17. 

Basket with flowers placed on Abraham Lincoln's casket 
by General Sherman. 

18. 

A piece of arborvitae tied with crepe (in a box, donor 
unknown). A funeral piece. 

19. 

Piece of tree trunk (elm) which stood in front of the 
Lincoln Homestead, planted by Abraham several years before 
he left Springfield for Washington, D. C. 

20. 

Pink shawl, diamond ring set in black onyx, pin, ear 
rings, locket and beads of black onyx; gold locket and 
bracelets (chain) and various other pieces of clothing. 

21. 

A handmade night robe, made by Mrs. Lincoln, with M. L. 
embroidered on it. 

22. 

Various pieces of original wood from Abraham Lincoln's 
Homestead in Springfield, Illinois. Many pictures framed 
in it. 

23. 

Rosewood parlor furniture and old tables, mirrors, 
chairs, etc., once the property of Ninian W. Edwards, which 
were in the house when Lincoln married. 

24. 

Cup and saucer used by the Lincolns in Washington, D. C, 

25. 

Mahogany wardrobe which was used by Mrs. Lincoln in the 
Edwards home. 



390 



26. 

Old door and window locks from the Abraham Lincoln 
Homestead. 



Mary Edwards Brown 



Subscribed and sworn to before me this 2nd day of May, 
A.D. 1925. 



Edna Mae Smith 



Notary Public 
My commission expires July 18, 1926. 



391 



APPENDIX III 



Fannie Somerville Affidavit 



393 



APPENDIX III 



HIS TOBY ui' SIDEBOARD 
OriiiZD BY CHAINS .v. j&KOWfl, 

-.Auolij, >■ • v'A. 



In the year 1858, Alexander Long of Mason County,, then 
Virginia, purchased from Abraham Linooln, at Springfield, 
Illinois, one raahogony marble top sideboard for the sum of 
^100.00, which sideboard has come down through four succeeding 
generationsto the present owner as follows: 

1 - Alexander hong, born in the yoar 1602, and died in the 
yoar 1682, bequeathed this to his daughter, Elizabeth Long Brown, 

2 - Elizabeth Long Brown, born in the year 1850, and died 
in the yeat 1906, bequeathed this to her son, Van B. Brown. 

3 - Van 3. Brown, born in "she year 1658, and died in the 
year 1916, bequeathed this to his son, Charles W. Brown. 

4 - Charles ./. Brown, born in the year 1691, is now the 
prosent owner of this sideboard, and he resides in Mason County, 
*7est Virginia. 

Fannie Somerville, corn in 1656, who signs this 
history, is a grand-daughter of the above named Alexander Long. 






STAXji OF .<JSiiT Vlr.CIMIA, ) 

( i'o-.at: 
COUi/IY OF MASOi*. ) 

I, L. .. ROUSH, a «otary i^ublic in and for said County 
and State, cio hnreb;, certify L.'iai Fannie Somerville of Maggie, 
Mason Count;/, .est Virginia, this day personally appeared before 
me in ;.<y said County, an . I :r being by me duly sworn, did de- 
pose and say that the abov>; . i;. uts are true and correct to 
the best of 'nor knowledge and belief. 

And the said Fannie Somerville acknowledged her sig- 
nature to the above writin . 

Given under my hand this the 12th. day of December, I9»H» 

My commission au Notary hut lie expires June 6, 1-399 1931. 



r:/< to, f\«U**hd!l> 



394 



APPENDIX IV 



Robert Watson Kuecher Affidavit 



395 



APPENDIX IV 



ROBERT WATSON KUECHER AFFIDAVIT, 1962 



I, Robert Kuecher, now residing in Hollywood, California, being 
duly sworn, gives the following statements as my recollections of 
family knowledge concerning certain materials which were once 
the property of Abraham Lincoln and used in his Springfield, 
Illinois home. 

The following articles, which were all acquired 
by my Grandfather, John Kuecher, from the Lin- 
coln Home, are the last of the Lincoln Collec- 
tion, outside of two chairs that are owned by 
John Kuecher, a nephew in Decatur, Illinois. 
My Uncle, Julius Kuecher, and others of the 
family told me that the only things Grandfather 
bought were the cabinet toilet set, quilt, and 
chair from the maid's room. I will list the 
antiques, and give their history as they were 
handed down through the years in the Kuecher 
family: 

Purchased at the sale on Lincoln's death by John B. Kuecher: 

1. Cabinet drawer stand, with white toilet 
set from maid's room. 

2. Quilt from maid's room. 

3. Child's rocking chair, always called 
"Tad's Chair" by our family. 

These things were hauled to the John Kuecher home by a driver 
for Baum's Monument company. The toilet set and quilt were 
given to my parents for a wedding present. A desk and the 
rocking chair were delivered to my sister, Alice Harlow, dur- 
ing her first year at the old Lincoln School. They have been 
stored in her home at 1328 Monroe Street, Springfield, Illinois. 

4. 50<t and 10<£ American coins 

were given to John Kuecher by Abraham Lincoln to purchase rope, 
and for helping to rope two of Lincoln's trunks. These coins 
were given to my Father by John Kuecher for a wedding present. 



396 



5. Couch from Lincoln Living room. 

6. Wheelbarrow, (Lincoln's initial carved in 
handle) don't know final destination. 

7. Lantern now in Valentine Collection. 

Lincoln gave the couch to John Kuecher and helped deliver it to 
the Kuecher home in the wheelbarrow. The lantern was brought 
along to light Lincoln's way home. The lantern and barrow were 
given to John Kuecher by Lincoln because Lincoln would have no 
further use for them. The couch later went to my Uncle, Julius 
Kuecher, who later gave it to me and I gave it to Lincoln's Home 
where it is now, and an affidavit is on file with State of Illi- 
nois. 

8. Books of Sermons. 

9. Volume of Shakespeare. 

10. (2) Presbyterian Hymn books. 

Items 8 and 9 were given to Lincoln by a Springfield friend and 
were given to Elizabeth Kuecher, my Grandmother, by Mrs. Lincoln, 
Mr. Kuecher later gave the hymn books to my English Grandmother, 
Betsy Webster, and I inherited them from her. 

11. Gold Cameo ring, given to me by my 
Grandmother on my 21st birthday. 
Owing to theater travelling, I left 
this ring in custody for safety with 
my Father. At his death, my Sister, 
Mrs. Harlow, kept it for me until her 
recent death. Lincoln gave this ring 
to my Grandfather, John Kuecher, about 
the time of his second inauguration 
and then passed on to my Grandmother, 
Elizabeth Kuecher who died in 1919. 

12. Pearl and gold pen in case given by 
Mrs. Lincoln to my Grandmother. 

13. Another pearl pen, not in case, from 
Lincoln home. 



397 



14. Pair of gold earrings with gold brooch, 
given by Mrs. Lincoln to my Grandmother 
before leaving for Washington, D.C. My 
Grandmother then gave them to my Mother 
for a wedding present. 

15. (2) desk shears, or scissors from desk 
at Lincoln home. 

16. Crystal glass paper weight, from Lin- 
coln's home desk. 

17. (5) Ivory letter openers or page cut- 
ters from Lincoln's desk. 

18. Hammer, screwdriver, box opener, or 
nail puller, always kept in box and 
kept as "Lincoln Tools." 

19. Framed picture of Church and yard, 
possibly from maid's room. 

20. Silver tassels from Lincoln's cata- 
falque when casket was in State House. 

21. Clothes brush. 

22. Dining room bell, (ivory handle). 

23. Mahogany frame and glass (no picture, 
used for table top to display coins, 
and other Lincoln objects in my fam- 
ily's home). 

24. Handmade copper tea kettle. 

25. Wooden board used as gate latch. 

26. Kitchen or porch chair formerly 
painted. 

27. Bedroom Vienna bent wood chair for- 
merly with cane seat. 

28. Handmade child's table with drawer. 

All items listed that I now own, I sell all right, title and in- 
terest to Emily E. Barker, Springfield, Illinois. 



398 



APPENDIX V 



Lincoln-Associated Furniture at LIHO 



399 



APPENDIX V 

FURNITURE WITH WELL-DOCUMENTED LINCOLN ASSOCIATION AT LIHO 

The criteria used to determine the list of well documented Lincoln 
furniture was a combination of the existence of affidavits, the 
date on which they were written (those written closer to Lincoln's 
lifetime were given more credence), whether or not the item de- 
scended in a single family, and whether or not the item had ever 
formed part of a major collection of Lincoln items, such as the 
Lincoln Memorial collection. 

LIHO 6, Secretary-Desk 

LIHO 13, Couch or lounge 

LIHO 25, Drop-leaf table 

LIHO 29, Card table 

LIHO 46, Sewing table 

LIHO 47, Rocking chair 

LIHO 51, Hat rack 

LIHO 54, Wall clock, E. Howard & Co. 

LIHO 58, Wardrobe 

LIHO 60, Bureau 

LIHO 71, Sleigh type bedstead 

LIHO 75, Child's table 

LIHO 150-152, Girandoles 

LIHO 278, Sewing basket 

LIHO 301-305, Bottles 

LIHO 308, Lap desk 



400 



LIHO 559, Royal Oak cook stove 

LIHO 983, Queens of England , book 

LIHO 1059-1060, Sofas 

LIHO 1061, LIHO 1190, Fancy chairs 

LIHO 1114, Side table 

LIHO 1115, Mirror 

LIHO 1116-1121, Side chairs 

LIHO 1122, Bureau 

LIHO 1123, Mahogany Side Table 

LIHO 1124, Wardrobe 

LIHO 1126, Bureau 

LINCOLN-ASSOCIATED FURNITURE WITH INCOMPLETE DOCUMENTATION AT LIHO 

LIHO 24, Whatnot 

LIHO 28, Side chair 

LIHO 31-32, Side chairs 

LIHO 38, Rocking Chair 

LIHO 48, Footstool 

LIHO 56, Rocking chair 

LIHO 59, LIHO 66, Fancy chairs 

LIHO 64, Rocking chair 

LIHO 69, Shaving mirror 

LIHO 94, Rocking chair 



401 



LIHO 97, Blanket chest 

LIHO 102, Bureau 

LIHO 104, Walnut commode 

LIHO 126, Rocking chair 

LIHO 192, Transfer print plate 

LIHO 193, Ironstone bowl 

LIHO 195, Ironstone serving dish 

LIHO 196, China dinner plate 

LIHO 197, Creamware pitcher 

LIHO 255, Pressed glass cake stand 

LIHO 259, Glass pitcher 

LIHO 273, Stereoscope 

LIHO 290-291, Abalone shells 

LIHO 744, Wool shawl 

LIHO 787, Side chair 

LIHO 1062, Side chair 



402 



APPENDIX VI 



Articles of Clothing Purchased by the Lincolns in Springfield 



403 



APPENDIX VI 



ARTICLES OF CLOTHING PURCHASED BY THE LINCOLNS IN SPRINGFIELD 



Irwin 



Oct. 4, 1849 Child's Boots $ 1.75 

Oct. 2, 1850 Cap $ 1.00 

June 21, 1851 Shoes for Robert $ .75 

July 7, 1851 Suspenders $ .50 

Nov. 6, 1851 Bonnet $ 2.00 

Jan. 16, 1852 Boots for Robert $ 1.75 

John Williams & Co. 



Oct. 10, 1851 1 Worked Collar, Per Lady $ 2.00 

1 Pair Slippers $ .50 

July 10, 1851 1 Pair Slippers $ 1.00 

Jan. 29, 1853 1 Boy's Cap $ .50 

Feb. 16, 1854 1 Pair Boy's Boots, Per Lady $ 1.50 

Jan. 23, 1855 1 Pair Overshoes $ 1.50 

1 Small Shawl $ 1.25 

Jan. 27, 1855 1 Small Shawl $ 1.25 

Mar. 31, 1855 1 Pair Boy's Boots by 

A. Lincoln $ 1.50 

1 Fr. Collar, Per Lady $ 4.00 

May 20, 1856 1 Small Hat, Per Lady $ 1.00 

1 Pair Small Congress Garters $ 1.50 



404 



June 


17, 


1856 


1 Pair Garters, Per Son 


$ 


2.25 


June 


20, 


1856 


1 Pair Slippers, Per Son 


$ 


1.00 


Sept 


• 3, 


1856 


1 Bonnet, Per Lady 

3h Yds. Bonnet Ribbon @ .30 


$ 
$ 


1.75 
1.05 








2 Pair Small Shoes @ .70 & 
@ .75 


$ 


1.45 








3 Pair Lady's Slippers 
1.00 


$ 


3.00 


Oct. 


11, 


1856 


1 Pair SI ippers 


$ 


1.00 


Dec. 


15, 


1856 


1 Pair Kid Gloves 


$ 


1.00 


Dec. 


16, 


1856 


To Exchange of Gloves 


$ 


.25 


Jan. 


7, 


1857 


1 Pair SI ippers 


$ 


1.00 


Mar. 


11, 


1857 


1 Pair Slippers, Per Lady 


$ 


1.00 


Dec. 


26, 


1857 


1 Pair Linen Kid Gloves, 
Per Son 


$ 


1.25 


July 


2, 


1858 


2 Fans, Per Lady 


$ 


1.20 








1 Pair White Gloves, 
Per Robert 


$ 


.25 


Dec. 


31, 


1858 


1 Pair Kid Gloves 
Per Robert 


$ 1.00 


Aug. 


18, 


1859 


2 Pairs Heavy Drawers 
@ 1.25, Per Son 


$ 2.50 


Aug. 


20, 


1859 


1 Pair Drawers, Per Robert 


$ 


1.25 


Oct. 


24, 


1858 


1 Pair Gloves for Bob, 
Per Lady 


$ 


1.00 


June 


21, 


1860 


Pres. A. L. to R. Loon & 







Bro. - 1 Pair Small Heeled 

Boots for Tad $ 1.25 



405 



Dec. 12, 1860 1 Shawl $ 8.00 

Dec. 13, 1860 1 Pocket Handkerchief $ .75 

Dec. 24, 1860 4 Child's Silk Handkerchiefs $ 1.00 

4 Linen Handkerchiefs .15 $ .60 

1 Gent's Silk Handkerchief $ .63 

2 Gent's Silk Handkerchiefs $ .90 

C. M. & S. Smith, Springfield, 111. 



Jan. 


28, 


1859 


1 Pair Shoes, Per Son 




$ .40 


Mar. 


21, 


1859 


1 Pair Gaiter Boots, 
Per Lady 

1 Pair Kid Boots 

1 Shirt 




$ 2.50 
$ 1.50 
$ 2.75 


Mar. 


26, 


1859 


1 Pair Kid Shoes, Per 


Son 


$ 1.50 


Mar. 


30, 


1859 


1 Boy's Hat, Per Lady 
1 Pair Boy's Shoes 




$ 1.50 
$ 1.25 


Apr. 


12, 


1859 


1 Boy's Hat, Per Lady 




$ 1.75 


Apr. 


26, 


1859 


1 Silk Hat, Per Lady 




$ 5.00 


Apr. 


27, 


1859 


2 Pair Stockings, Per 
Lady @ .35 




$ .70 


Apr. 


30, 


1859 


1 Pair Cott Shoes, Per 


■ Bob 


$ .50 


May 


6, 1859 


1 Gent's Stock, Per Lady 


$ 1.25 


May 


12, 


1859 


2 Straw Hats @ .50 

1 Cravat 

Difference in Cravat, 


Per Son 


$ 1.00 
$ .40 
$ .25 


May 


19, 


1859 


1 Pair Silk Mitts, Per 


• Lady 


$ 2.00 


May 


21, 


1859 


2 Silk Collars @ 4.00 
2.50, Per Lady 


& 


$ 6.50 



406 



June 3, 1859 1 Silk Cravat $ 1.00 

June 11, 1859 2 Pair Boy's Socks @ .40 $ .80 

June 30, 1859 4 Handkerchiefs @ .20, 

Per Lady $ .80 

July 7, 1859 1 Boy's Hat, Per Lady $ 1.25 

1 Boy's Hat $ .40 

1 Pair Boy's Gaiters $ 1.25 

2 Linen Handkerchiefs $ .60 

July 12, 1859 1 Shirt Front, Per Lady $ .60 

July 13, 1859 1 Pair Suspenders, Per Self $ .75 

Aug. 6, 1859 1 Pair Boy's Shoes, Per Lady $ 1.10 

Aug. 9, 1859 1 Hooped Skirt, Per Lady $ 3.75 

Aug. 13, 1859 3 Linen Handkerchiefs, 

Per Lady $ 2.25 

3 Linen Handkerchiefs 

.50 $ 1.50 

Aug. 18, 1859 1 Linen Handkerchief $ .75 

1 Linen Handkerchief $ .30 

Aug. 20, 1859 1 Pair Gloves, Per Lady $ 1.88 

Sept. 6, 1859 1 Boy's Cap, Per Lady $ 1.25 

Sept. 14, 1859 1 Gent's Stock, Per Lady $ 1.50 

1 Boy's Cap $ .75 

2 Pairs Boy's Socks @ .40 $ .80 

Sept. 22, 1859 2 Pair Boy's Boots @ 

2.00, Per Lady $ 4.00 

Oct. 5, 1859 1 Pair Kid Gauntlets, 

Per Lady $ 1.50 

1 Boy's Cloth Cap $ 2.25 



407 



Oct. 


24, 1859 


2 Pair Boy's Gloves 
.20, Per Lady 


S 


.40 


Oct. 


24, 1859 


2 Pair Boy's Gloves @ .40 
1 Pair Gloves for Bob 
1 Necktie 


$ 
$ 
$ 


.80 
.75 
.80 


Nov. 


17, 1859 


2 Pair Wool Socks @ .40 


$ 


.80 


Dec. 


2, 1859 


2 Boy's Hat 1.50, 
Per Lady 


$ 


3.00 






1 Pair Gum Shoes 


$ 


.60 



408 



APPENDIX VII 



Items loaned to the Illinois State Historical Society Library 
from 1924 to 1927 from the Oliver R. Barrett Collection 



409 



APPENDIX VII 



ITEMS LOANED TO THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY LIBRARY 
FROM 1924 TO 1927 FROM THE OLIVER R. BARRETT COLLECTION 



fan (Mrs. Lincoln), carried by Mrs. Lincoln on the 
night of April 14, 1865 

pearl handle pocket knife (Abraham Lincoln) 

set of jewelry set with diamonds (Mrs. Lincoln), 
presented to Mrs. Lincoln by William Mortimer, 
September 12, 1863 

onyx pin and one earring (Mrs. Lincoln) 

box hair (Mr. Lincoln and Willie) 

piece tablecloth from home of Governor Edwards 
used at Lincoln's wedding 

book of theological lectures inscribed on inside 
"A. Lincoln, Nov. 30, 1860" 

portfolio wallet "A. Lincoln" 

photostat "Mr. Lincoln at Home" taken from Spring- 
field Journal of November 1, 1858 

book "Elements of Character" name of Mary Lincoln 
on fly leaf 

picture pair beaded moccasins "A.L." 

mirror in folding box with inscription "Made by 
Ben Carr to A. Lincoln, 1858, Springfield." 



410 



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 
Primary Sources 



Acton, Eliza. Modern Cookery, In All Its Branches, Revised 
for American Housekeepers by Mrs. S. J. Hale . 
Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1845. 



Baringer, William E. Lincoln Day by Day: A Chronology 1809-1865 , 
Washington: Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission, 1960. 



Basler, Roy P., ed. The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln . 

8 vols. Springfield, Illinois: The Abraham Lincoln 
Association, 1953. 



Basler, Roy P. The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln Supple - 
ment 1832-1865 . Westport, Connecticut and London: 
Greenwood Press, 1974. 



Beecher, Catherine and Harriet Beecher Stowe. The American 
Woman's Home or Principles of Domestic Science . 
New York: J. B. Ford & Co., 1869. 



Beeton, Mrs. Isabella. The Book of Household Management . 
London: S. 0. Beeton, 1861. 



Brown, Caroline Owsley, "Springfield Society Before the Civil 
War," Journal of the Illinois State Historical 
Society XV ( 1922-1923) : 477-500. 



Catalogue , Charles Hamilton Auction No. 81, The Waldorf Astoria, 
" October 10, 1974. 



Catalogue , Charles Hamilton Auction No. 102, January 20, 1977. 



411 



Catalogue , Sotheby Parke Bernet Sale No. 4179, Pt. 2, November 14, 
1978. 



Coe, Charles H., compiler. A Descriptive and Historical Catalogue 
of the Oldroyd Lincoln Memorial Collection, 1896 , 
unpublished ms. 



Corneau, Octavia Roberts, ed. "A Girl in the Sixties: Excerpts 
from the Journal of Anna Ridgely," Journal of the 
Illinois State Historical Society , XXII (October 1929) 
401-446. 



Daily Illinois State Journal 



Downing, A. J. The Architecture of Country Houses . New York 
D. Appleton & Co. , 1850. 



Godey's Lady's Book . Philadelphia, 1830-1855. 



Grimsley, Elizabeth, "Six Months in the White House," Journal 
of the Illinois State Historical Society , XIX, 1927: 
43-73. 



Hale, Mrs. Sarah J. Keeping House and Housekeeping . New York 
Harper & Brothers, 1845. 



Hall, E.H., compiler. Springfield City Directory and Sangamon 
County Advertiser, 1855-1856. 



Harris, Gibson William, "My Recollections of Abraham Lincoln," 
Woman's Home Companion , November and December, 1903, 
January and February, 1904. 



Helm, Emily Todd, "Mary Todd Lincoln: Reminiscences and Letters 
of the Wife of President Lincoln," McClure's Magazine , 
XI (September 1898) pp:476-480. 



412 



Henkels, Stan V., compiler. Catalogue No. 731, The Valuable Col - 
l ection of Autographs and Historical Papers Collected 
by The Hon. Jas. T. Mitchel 1 . . .also The Entire Lincoln 
Memorial Collection of Chicago, Illinois, December 5 
and 6, 1844 Illinois State Historical Society Library, 
Springfield, Illinois. The original, along with affi- 
davits for the furniture, is located in the collections 
of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 



Hertz, Emanuel. The Hidden Lincoln from the Letters and 
Papers of William H. Herndon . New York, 1938. 



Horticulture , January 1, 1857. 
Illinois State Register . 



Koerner, Gustave. Memoirs of Gustave Koerner, 1809-1896 
2 vols. Cedar Rapids: The Torch Press, 1909. 



Leslie, Eliza. Miss Leslie's Lady's House Book . Philadelphia 
A. Hart, 12th ed., 1850. 



Lincoln Home Floor Plans, ca. 1887, Ferry & Henderson Archi- 
tects, Inc., Springfield, Illinois. 



Miscellaneous Treasury Accounts 1861-1865, Annual Repairs of 
the President's House , RG56, The National Archives, 
Washington, D. C. ("Furnishing bills for the White 
House under the Lincoln administration.) 



Morrison's St. Louis Directory for 1852 (and 1860) 



Mrs. Putnam's Receipt Book; and Young Housekeeper's Assistant , 
Boston: Tickner and Fields, 1857. 



413 



Oldroyd, Lida A. "Lincoln's Home," The National Picket , I 
(July 1891) pp:7-8. 



The Oldroyd Lincoln Memorial Collection - Schedule furnished 
by Mr. Oldroyd January 19, 1897, revised to August 28 , 
1926 . Washington, D.C., unpublished ms. 



Palmer, Mrs. John. "Remembrances of Two Springfield Weddings 
of the Olden Time," Journal of the Illinois State 
Historical Society , III no. 2 (5 July 1910), 1910-1911 
39-44. 



Springfield, Illinois. Illinois State Historical Library. 
Recollections of Mary Edwards Brown. 



Storke, E. G. The Family and Householders Guide . Auburn, 
New York: Auburn Publishing Co., 1859. 



Turner, Justin G. and Linda Levitt Turner. Mary Todd Lincoln 
Her Life and Letters . New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 
1972. 



Washington, D.C. Library of Congress, Herndon-Weik Collection 



Washington, D.C. National Archives and Records Service. Seventh 
Decennial Census of the United States. Illinois: 
Sangamon County. 



Webster's Encyclopaedia of Domestic Economy . London: Longman, 
Brown, Green and Longman, 1844. 



Williams' Springfield Directory . Springfield, Illinois, 1860, 



Zane, Charles S. "Lincoln As I Knew Him," Journal of the 

Illinois State Historical Society, XIV no. 1, (Apri 1 
1921): 74-79. 



414 



Decorative Arts Sources 



Abernathy Bros. Illustrated Catalogue, Wholesale Price List , 
Leavenworth, Kansas, 1872. 



Bishop, Robert. Centuries and Styles of The American Chair , 
1640-1970 . New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 
1972. 



Crossman, Carl L. The China Trade: Export Paintings, Furniture , 
Silver and Other Objects . Princeton: The Pyne 
Press, 1972. 



Donald, Ellen Kirven, "Furniture From the Collection of the 
Lincoln Home National Historic Site: Condition 
Reports and Construction Drawings," unpublished ms., 
National Park Service, June, 1978. 



E. Howard & Co. Illustrated Catalogue of Clocks . Boston, 
1874, reprinted by American Clock & Watch Museum, 
Inc., Bristol, Connecticut. 1972. 



Godden, Geoffrey. Encyclopedia of British Pottery and 
Porcelain Marks . New York: Crown Publishers, 
1964. 



Hughes, G. Bernard, Victorian Pottery and Porcelain . New York 
The MacMillan Co., 1959. 



Kamm, Minnie. Old China . Grosse Point Farms, Michigan, 
privately published 1951. 



Kunciov, Robert. Mr. Godey's Ladies . New York: Bonanza 
Books, 1971. 



415 



Laidacker, Sam. Anglo-American China, Part II . Bristol, 
Pennsylvania, 1951. 



Lantz, Louise K. Old American Ki tchenware, 1725-1925 . 

Hanover, Pennsylvania: Everybody's Press, 1970, 



Lee, Ruth Webb. Early American Pressed Glass . Pittsford, 
New York: privately published 1931. 



Linton. The Modern Textile and Apparel Dictionary , New Jersey, 



Madden, Betty I. Arts, Crafts and Architecture in Early 
II linois . Urbana, Chicago, London: University 
of Illinois Press, 1974. 



Olson, Sarah. William Howard Taft Home: Historic Furnishing 
Plan . Draft:National Park Service Report, Harpers 
Ferry Center, National Park Service. April, 1979. 



Ormsbee, Thomas H. English China and Its Marks . Great Neck, 
New York: Deerfield Editions, 1959. 



Ormsbee, Thomas H. Field Guide to American Victorian 

Furniture . Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown, 
& Co., 1952. 



Peirce, Donald C. "Mitchell and Rammelsberg, Cincinnati 

furniture manufacturers, 1847-1881," in Ian Quimby 
(ed.), American Furniture and Its Makers . Chicago 
and London: Henry Francis duPont Winterthur Museum, 
1979. 



Peterson, Harold L. Americans at Home . New York: Charles 
Scribner and Sons, 1971. 



416 



Seth Thomas Clock Company. Illustrated Catalogue of Seth 

Thomas Clocks, Regulators and Time Pieces . Connec- 
ticut, 1863, with additions 1864-1872 and Tower 
Clocks, 1874, reprint by American Clock and Watch 
Museum, Bristol, Connecticut, 1973. 



Swan, Susan Burrows. Plain and Fancy: American Women and 
Their Needlework, 1700-1850 . New York: Holt, 
Rinehart and Winston, 1977. 



Turner, Noel D. American Silver Flatware 1837-1910. New York 



H. S. Barnes, 1972, 
Secondary Sources 



Angle, Paul M. Here I Have Lived. A History of Lincoln's 
Springfield 1821-1865 . Springfield: The Abraham 
Lincoln Association, 1935. 



Barrett, J. H. Life of Abraham Lincoln . Cincinnati: Moore, 
Wilstach, Baldwin, 1864. 



Bearss, Edwin C. Historic Structure Report: Lincoln Home 

National Historic Site, Illinois . Denver Service 
Center, National Park Service, July, 1973. 



Blankmeyer, Helen Van Cleave. "Health Measures in Early 
Springfield," Journal of the Illinois State 
Historical Society , XLIV (Winter, 1951): 323-331. 



Bowen, A. L. "A. Lincoln: His House," Lincoln Centennial 
Papers . Springfield, 1925. 



Brown, Virginia Stuart. "Notes on the Restoration of Lincoln's 
Home," unpublished ms., Illinois State Historical 
Library. Springfield, Illinois. 



417 



Brown, Virginia Stuart. Through Lincoln's Door . Springfield, 
1953. 



Donald, David. Lincoln's Herndon . New York: Alfred Knopf, 
1948. 



Duncan, C. Milner. Lincoln and Liquor . New York: The Neale 
Publishing Co.: 1920. 



Frank, John Paul. Lincoln As A Lawyer . Urbana: University of 
Illinois Press: 1961. 



Goff, John S. "The Education of Robert Todd Lincoln," 

Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society , 
LIII, no. 4 (Winter, 1960): 341-360. 



Hagen, Richard S. "Back- Yard Archeology at Lincoln's Home," 
Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society , 
XLIV, no. 4 (Winter, 1951). 



Hagen, Richard S. "What A Pleasant Home Abe Lincoln Has," 
Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society , 
XLIV, no. 4 (Spring, 1955). 



Helm, Katherine. Mary, Wife of Lincoln . New York and London 
Harper and Brothers, 1928. 



Herndon, William H. and Jesse W. Weik. Abraham Lincoln : 

The True Story of a Great Life , 2 vols. New York: 
D. Appleton & Co., 1896. 



Hickey, James T. "Notes on Lincoln Home," unpublished ms., 
Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield, 
II linois. 



418 



Hickey, James T. "The Lincolns' Globe Tavern, A Study in 

Tracing the History of a Nineteenth Century Build- 
ing," The Journal of the Illinois State Historical 
Society , LVI (Winter, 1963): 629-654. 



Hickey, James T. and King V. Hostick. The Lincoln Home . 

Springfield, Illinois: privately published 1964. 



Holland, Josiah G. The Life of Abraham Lincoln , Springfield, 
Massachusetts: G. Bill, 1866. 



Kunhardt, Dorothy Meserve and Philip B. Kunhardt, Jr. Twenty 
Days . New York: Harper and Row, 1965. 



Lamon, Ward H. The Life of Abraham Lincoln: From His Birth 
to His Inauguration as President . Boston: J.R. 
Osgood, 1872. 



Lincoln Lore . Fort Wayne, Indiana 



Lincoln Home, National Historic Site, Springfield, Illinois , 

Final Interpretive Prospectus , National Park Service, 
October, 1976. 



Lincoln Home National Historic Site, Illinois, Master Plan, 
National Park Service, February, 1970. 



Morrow, Honore Willsie. Mary Todd Lincoln . New York: 
William Morrow & Co., 1928. 



Nicolay, John G. and John Hay. Abraham Lincoln, A History , 
10 Vols. New York: The Century Company, 1890. 



The Old Capitol, 1840-1876:Springfield, Illinois . Spring- 
field: Illinois State Historical Society for the 
Abraham Lincoln Association. 



419 



Oldroyd, Osborn H. "Raising the Stars and Stripes Over the 

Lincoln Homestead, Springfield, Illinois, October 16, 
1889," unpublished ms., Illinois State Historical 
Library, Springfield, Illinois. 



Pratt, Harry E. Concerning Mr. Lincoln . Springfield, Illinois: 
The Abraham Lincoln Association, 1944. 



Pratt, Harry E. , Editor. "The Lincolns Go Shopping," Journal 
of the Illinois State Historical Society , XLVIII, 
no. 1 (Spring, 1955). 



Pratt, Harry E. The Personal Finances of Abraham Lincoln 
Springfield, Illinois. The Abraham Lincoln 
Association, 1943. 



Randall, Ruth Painter. I, Mary . Boston and Toronto: 
Little, Brown & Co. , 1959. 



Randall, Ruth Painter. Lincoln's Sons . Boston and Toronto: 
Little, Brown & Co. , 1955. 



Randall, Ruth Painter. Mary Lincoln: Biography of a Marriage 
Boston: Little, Brown, 1961. 



Sandburg, Carl and Paul M. Angle. Mary Lincoln Wife and Widow . 
New York: Harcourt, Bruce & Co., 1932. 



Scott, Kenneth. "Candidate Lincoln in the New York Press," 
The New York Historical Society Quarterly , XLIII 
(January 1959): 5^3T. 



Scott, Kenneth. "Lincoln Home in 1860," Journal of the 

Illinois State Historical Society , XLVI (Spring, 
1963). 



420 



Temple, Wayne C. "Lincoln in the Census," Lincoln Herald , LXVIII 
(Fall, 1966): 135-140. 



Vol k, Leonard M. "The Lincoln Life-Mask and How It Was Made," 
Century Magazine , XXIII, no. 2 (December 1881). 



Wallace, Joseph. Past and Present of the City of Springfield 
and Sangamon County, Illinois . 2 vols., Chicago: 
S.V. Clarke, 1904. 



Wilson, Rufus Rockwell. What Lincoln Read . Washington, D. C: 
National Capital Press, 1932. 



421 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



423 



PLATE I 

Front Parlor from 
Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , 
March 9, 1861. 

Photo courtesy of the Library of Congress 



424 




425 



PLATE II 

Back Parlor from 
Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , 
March 9, 1861. 

Photo courtesy of the Library of Congress 



426 




427 



PLATE III 

The Sitting Room from 
Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , 
March 9, 1861. 

Photo courtesy of the Library of Congress 



428 




429 



PLATE IV 

Parlors draped for Lincoln's Funeral, ca. 1865, 
attributed to Alfred Waud, Waud Collection, 
LC-USZ62-68106, Division of Prints and 
Photographs, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C, 

Photo courtesy of the Library of Congress. 



430 




431 



PLATE V 

Unidentified room, possibly South Front Bedroom, 
ca. 1865, attributed to Alfred Waud, Waud Collec- 
tion, LC-USZ62-68105, Division of Prints and 
Photographs, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C, 

Photo courtesy of the Library of Congress. 



432 



■MM 



■—*■ 





■m 



433 



PLATE VI 

Unidentified room, possibly Lincoln's Bedroom, 
ca. 1865, attributed to Alfred Waud, Waud Collec- 
tion, LC-USZ62-68104, Division of Prints and 
Photographs, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C, 

Photo courtesy of the Library of Congress. 



434 




435 



PLATE VII 

Globe Tavern, ca. 1865, attributed to Alfred Waud, 
Waud Collection, LC-USZ62-68107, Division of Prints 
and Photographs, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C 

Photo courtesy of the Library of Congress. 



436 






. ! 



K 



> 








v 



rfrr-f 



• 



• 




3) 




3b^C^ 




437 



PLATE VIII 

Sofa, Accession No. 1920.246, 
Chicago Historical Society, 
Chicago, Illinois. 

Photo courtesy of the Chicago Historical Society. 



438 




439 



PLATE IX 

Mirror, Accession No. 1960.100, 
Chicago Historical Society, 
Chicago, Illinois. 

Photo courtesy of the Chicago Historical Society, 



440 




441 



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